Tuesday, March 24, 2020
This paper aims at describing the impact of tourism on the ecosystem. This paper will begin by defining tourism and the ecosystem. Thereafter, it will give examples of how tourism affects the ecosystem. This paper will then sum up its discussion by providing a number of recommendations.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Tourism and Ecosystem specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Jax, Ã¢â¬Å"an ecosystem is a community of living organisms together with the physical processes which occur within an environmentÃ¢â¬ (20). On the other hand, Tourism, according to Goeldner, Ã¢â¬Å"arises from the movement of people to and their stay in, various destinationsÃ¢â¬ (10). Goeldner defines tourism as Ã¢â¬Å"the temporary, short term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work, and their activities during their stay at these destinations; it includes movement for all purposes as well as day visits or excursionsÃ¢â¬ (10). Basically, tourism occurs in two forms: Ã¢â¬Å"the journey to the destination and the stay including the activities at the destinationÃ¢â¬ (Goeldner 10). It is important to note that the journey and the stay take place in an area distant from the normal place of work or stay. Tourists usually engage in activities which are different from those done while at work or at home. The interaction between humans and the ecosystem has contributed to various changes in the ecosystem. Tourism, which is a popular human activity, continues to change the ecosystem. However, detecting changes in the ecosystem, which have been caused by tourism can be challenging. The impact of tourism on the ecosystem is not only hard to predict, but also hard to detect. In addition, environmentalists find it challenging to distinguish between those components of change which are part of a natural process and ecosystem dynamics, and those which are as a result of human activities. It is important to understand how tourism affects the ecosystem in order to sustain the ecosystem function and prevent irreparable damage to the biosphere. The impact of tourism on the ecosystem is usually evaluated in terms of an ecological footprint. An ecological footprint, according to Johnson, Ã¢â¬Å"examines the amount of natural resources required to support a specific type of behavior, business or processÃ¢â¬ (2). Experts argue that many people tend to consume more when they are on vacation or holiday thus tourism heightens this phenomenon (Johnson 1).Advertising Looking for research paper on ecology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A number of studies have highlighted that the ecological footprint of tourists in various tourist destinations is same as that of the locals. Environmentalists hold the opinion that when arrival transport is put into consideration, this ecological footpri nt escalates. Tourism is a major foreign exchange earner for many countries across the globe. Although, tourism is a major source of income for many countries, it has been found that it exerts indirect and direct pressure on species and habitats and, as a result, tourism poses a significant threat to the ecosystem. As mentioned earlier, people tend to consume more when they are on vacation. Thus, Johnson notes that the negative effects of tourism on the ecosystem are likely to increase in tourist destinations where tourists consume more than the local communities (1). A study was conducted recently in Cape Town, South Africa, to evaluate the ecological footprint of tourists in this region. Cape Town is a popular tourist destination in South Africa and it is believed that close to 50 000 tourists visit this town per year. As a result, the local population is increased by 4 percent. During the study, the researchers Ã¢â¬Å"gathered data on arrival transport, on food and fibre consumpt ion, on accommodation, on land use, utilities and waste, on local transport and on activities of tourists on holiday in Cape TownÃ¢â¬ (Science Direct 1). The researchers found out that arrival transport contributes 75 per cent of the total tourist impact on ecosystem. The study revealed that Ã¢â¬Å"the total impact of one tourist is 45.67gha/per yearÃ¢â¬ (Science Direct 1). Tourist activities often alter the aquatic habitat by interfering with predator prey interactions. Ecotourism Today argues Ã¢â¬Å"off highway vehicles, including all terrain vehicles, Argos, dirt bikes, and off road vehicles, driven trough or across steams and other water bodies can lead to habitat destruction and degradation, including loss of stream bank stability and erosionÃ¢â¬ (5). Aquatic habitat is likely to be distorted by pollution and alterations in the neighboring habitats. Ecotourism Today (1) agues Ã¢â¬Å"while recreational activities that take place in lakes, streams, wetlands, and their ri parian areas are most likely to negatively impact the aquatic environment, land based activities can also impact the environmentÃ¢â¬ (Ecotourism Today 1).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Tourism and Ecosystem specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ecotourism Today indicates that tourist activities such as fishing and hunting of sea animals often lead to the decline in the pollution of aquatic species (Ecotourism Today 5). Environment protectionists warn that the growth of tourism around the globe has overlooked concerns of increasing ecological resource use (Johnson 2). These claims have been boosted by results from recent studies which indicate that tourist attraction sites and infrastructures are sites of resource overconsumption. For example, a recent study was conducted in the Bahamas to evaluate the impact of tourism on ecosystem. The study collected data Ã¢â¬Å"on bioreproductive land, Bioreproductiv e Sea, built land, energy land, and area for biodiversityÃ¢â¬ (Johnson 6). During the study, Ã¢â¬Å"the ecological footprint of each resort was broken into a number of key areas of ecological impact; air travel, waste, food, and hotel energy useÃ¢â¬ (Johnson 6). The study revealed that tourism has a total impact of a 56.89 gha/per year on the selected region (Johnson 6). According to McGraw, the chief editor of Bio Intelligence Service, tourism causes trampling. Vegetation and soil are often disturbed when tourists use the same route frequently. McGraw notes that anchoring activities also degrade the ecosystem: Ã¢â¬Å"Anchoring, snorkeling, sport fishing, scuba diving, yachting and cruising, are some of the activities which can cause direct degradation of marine ecosystems such as coral reefs, and subsequent impacts on coastal protection and fisheriesÃ¢â¬ (McGraw 1). In addition, Ã¢â¬Å"when tourists come too close to animals, they alter the animalsÃ¢â¬â¢ natural behavior sÃ¢â¬ (McGraw 2). As the numbers of tourist destinations continue to grow, the impact of tourism on the ecosystem also increases. Many private companies are investing heavily in the construction of recreational centers. Initially, the tourism industry in many countries was controlled by local governments. However, many private firms have entered into the tourism industry.Advertising Looking for research paper on ecology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The tourism industry has been revolutionized by the private sector but at the expense of the environment. According to (McGraw 5), a total of 40 recreational centers have constructed in South Africa in the last five years. In Kenya, a country whose economy relies heavily on tourism, 20 recreational centers have been constructed in the last three years (McGraw 6). In addition, the Kenyan government has taken control of all other small natural reserves, which have any form of wildlife. According to (McGraw 6), KenyaÃ¢â¬â¢s Tourism minister argues that taking control of all the natural habitats will enhance the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s tourism sector in many ways as the number of tourist destinations will increase. This data shows how the natural environment is being altered by tourism. These developments have a significant impact on nearby ecosystems. Many natural lands located close to wildlife ecosystems are being cleared to create space for the construction of centers which will accommod ate the growing number of tourists. Confining wild animals in national parks and game reserves significantly affects their behaviors. The reproduction of these animals is restricted and this can result into the extinction of the confined species. This also affects the animalsÃ¢â¬â¢ natural feeding habits. Moreover, the confining of wild animals into national parks alters food chains and food webs in the natural world. Recreational centers which are located close to water bodies often discharge wastes into these water bodies thus affecting the aquatic ecosystem. In summary, Tourism, according to Goeldner, Ã¢â¬Å"arises from the movement of people to and their stay in, various destinationsÃ¢â¬ (10). Goeldner defines tourism as Ã¢â¬Å"the temporary, short term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work, and their activities during their stay at these destinations; it includes movement for all purposes as well as day visits or excursions Ã¢â¬ (10). Basically, tourism occurs in two forms: Ã¢â¬Å"the journey to the destination and the stay including the activities at the destinationÃ¢â¬ (Goeldner 10). The impact of tourism on the ecosystem is usually evaluated in terms of an ecological footprint. An ecological footprint, according to Johnson, Ã¢â¬Å"examines the amount of natural resources required to support a specific type of behavior, business or processÃ¢â¬ (2). Experts argue that many people tend to consume more when they are on vacation or holiday thus tourism heightens this phenomenon (Johnson 1). As the numbers of tourist destinations continue to grow, the impact of tourism on the ecosystem also increases. Many natural lands located close to wildlife ecosystems are being cleared to create space for the construction of centers which will accommodate the growing number of tourists. Confining wild animals in national parks and game reserves significantly affects their behaviors. Environment protectionist s warn that the growth of tourism around the globe has overlooked concerns of increasing ecological resource use (Johnson 2). These claims have been boosted by results from recent studies which indicate that tourist attraction sites and infrastructures are sites of resource overconsumption. Tourist activities often alter the aquatic habitat by interfering with predator prey interactions. Ecotourism Today argues Ã¢â¬Å"off highway vehicles, including all terrain vehicles, Argos, dirt bikes, and off road vehicles, driven trough or across steams and other water bodies can lead to habitat destruction and degradation, including loss of stream bank stability and erosionÃ¢â¬ (Ecotourism Today 1). Environmental protectionists also argue that it is important to understand how tourism affects the ecosystem in order to sustain the ecosystem function and prevent irreparable damage to the biosphere. However, detecting changes in the ecosystem, which have been caused by tourism can be challeng ing. The impact of tourism on the ecosystem is not only hard to predict, but also hard to detect. In addition, environmentalists find it challenging to distinguish between those components of change which are part of a natural process and ecosystem dynamics, and those which are as a result of human activities. Works Cited Ecotourism Today. Ã¢â¬ËPotential Effects from Tourism and Recreation on Aquatic Ecosystems.Ã¢â¬â¢ August 2012.Web. Goeldner, Charles. Tourism: Principles, Practices and Philosophies. London: Oxford Press, 2010. Print. Jax, Maxwell. Ecosystems: Basic Principles. Cape Town: Oxford, 2010. Print. Johnson, Allan. Exploring The Ecological Footprint Of Tourism In Ontario. Waterloo, Ontario: Oxford Press, 2010. McGrew, John. Ã¢â¬Å"Environmental Impacts of TourismÃ¢â¬ . Bio Intelligence Science 6 June 2010: 1-10. Web. Science Direct. Effects of Tourism on the Ecosystem. March 2012. Web. https://www.sciencedirect.com/. This research paper on Tourism and Ecosystem was written and submitted by user Gloria F. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Touch Football Analysis Essay Essays Touch Football Analysis Essay Essay Touch Football Analysis Essay Essay Touch football involves the usage of all three energy systems which are the ATP-CP system. Lactic Acid system and the Aerobic system. ATP shops are to the full replenished after 2-3 proceedingss or 50 % can be replenished after 30 seconds. The ATP-CP system is anaerobiotic which means there is no O nowadays and is a consequence of the dislocation of creatine phosphate. It is preponderantly used in activities which are high strength and last for up to 10 seconds. There are no fatiguing by merchandises nevertheless ATP production is really limited. The lactic acid system is besides anaerobiotic nevertheless it lasts for around 90 seconds. It is the consequence of glucose being converted into lactic acid. Lactic acid is a fatiguing by merchandise that builds up in the organic structure after vigorous exercising and which force an jock to decelerate or halt their activity. The concluding energy system is the aerophilic system. This is the production of energy from the dislocation of saccharides and fats utilizing O. This system is used for low strength activities of a long continuance. The bi-products of this system are H2O. C dioxide and heat nevertheless they are non tiring which is why the aerobic system is efficient for long continuance and endurance events. A game of touch requires the usage and interplay of all three energy systems ; ATP-CP. Lactic Acid and Aerobic systems. The organic structure at the same time uses an energy system as there are many accomplishments in touch that are of different strengths and continuance. For approximately the first 2 proceedingss of the game. the strength is submaximal as participant 1 is acquiring into place. It can be seen on the bosom rate proctor graph that there is a little addition in bosom rate bespeaking a little addition of strength from walking to a visible radiation jog which can be shown in the tabular array. The organic structure is able work aerobically at this point as there is sufficient O to run into the demands of the activity. The bosom rate proctor shows at point A that there is a steep slope of participant 1Ã¢â¬â¢s bosom rate. This was caused by a series of contrivances. dashs and side which increased the bosom rate at 3 proceedingss into the game. As these activities are of a higher strength and in such a short infinite of clip. it creates an O shortage. Because of this O shortage. the organic structure has to now use the ATP-CP system. However. the ATP-CP system is merely fleeting. enduring for 10 seconds. and therefore its shop becomes largely used up. The lactic acid system so becomes the more dependent energy system. 5 proceedingss into the game the bosom rate graph shows a little tableland which indicates that participant 1 was working at maximum strength. It is merely possible to work near to this threshold for a limited clip therefore strength must drop doing the bosom rate to take down. Player 1 was involved in a series of dashs. contrivances and side stepping every bit good as playing the ball and passing. These are all high strength activities which have caused the addition of bosom rate on the graph. After the first 5 proceedingss of the game. participant 1 is substituted away. At this point. Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption ( EPOC ) takes topographic point. EPOC allows the aerophilic system to refill ATP-CP shops and resynthesises lactic acid. The first phase of EPOC is called alactacid and restores ATP-CP. This procedure happens rapidly in merely 30 seconds and is of import as the ATP-CP system is really of import in a game of touch. After being substituted back on. participant 1 will hold had full shops of ATP-CP. The same can be said for points C and D nevertheless at point D. exercice has ceased and a full EPOC can take topographic point. The first phase of EPOC is the alactacid constituent which involves the Restoration of ATP and CP shops and O. This procedure takes 2-3 proceedingss. The 2nd portion is the Lactacid constituent and involves the remotion of lactic acid and refilling of animal starch. Full recovery may take up to 90 proceedingss. A warm down should hold been done by the jock to rush up the remotion of lactic acid every bit good as forestalling blood pooling. leting skeletal musculuss to oxidize and to maintain blood circulation elevated. 4: There are legion tactics used in touch football to out play the other squad which can be done by using each of the three energy systems. . Many of these tactics involve utilizing the cognition of the energy systems to an advantage. One maneuver used by many squads is to run at the same guardian invariably while assailing so that. that participant will go exhausted and as a consequence. will non be able to run as fast or acquire back into place in clip. This will open up spreads in the other teamÃ¢â¬â¢s defense mechanism line and will make an country for a squad mate to run through. By pin indicating one participant they will hold to run backwards for a few dramas which will last for over 10 seconds and as a consequence the participant will hold depleted their ATP-CP system. This doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t let the guardian to refill ATP-CP shops before each touch. coercing them to preponderantly utilize their lactic system to synthesize energy. The Lactic acid system produces the tiring byproduct lactic acid which causes the participant to pall. As a consequence the guardian will non be able to react as rapidly and make a spread in the defensive line that the herd can run through. After executing a maximum attempt as a herd. participant 1 should be shifted to the flying where less intense and frequent activity occurs. This is where positioning becomes a great tactic and will let for the aerophilic system to be predominately used to reconstruct ATP-CP every bit good as resynthesise lactic acid. Following this. participant one should be substituted off to let ATP-CP shops to refill 50 % . Another great maneuver is to utilize the replacements sagely. When doing a replacement it is smarter to do the alteration when your squad is assailing to avoid any defensive spreads for the other squad to run through. While in an assaultive drama. the participants that are fatigued should float closer to the bench so that speedy permutations can be made. A tactic would affect altering 3-4 participants at one clip to hold a rested squad on the field and to besides confound the oppositions as to who they are supporting. The participants that have merely been rested should hold a full ATP-CP system which is good to rule the drama. 5: Touch involves the combination of many fitness constituents. nevertheless. it is clear from set abouting a gameÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis that some have more of an impact on the game than others. Agility is defined as the ability to alter way rapidly and accurately while keeping balance which is decidedly a chief facet of the athletics. A GPS tracker was placed on a pupil to map his running during a touch game and the consequences show many crisp bends and running that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t in a consecutive line. It is clear from the map of the tracking device that legion crisp alterations of waies were required during the game. There were a sum of 10 contrivances. 12 dashs and 16 occasions where participant 1 had to side measure. All of these accomplishments required some signifier of sudden alteration of way. It is an indispensable portion of touch to be able to forge one way. doing your opposition to switch their Centre of gravitation. and so rapidly alter way into a spread. Besides. dodging and weaving in between participants is necessary. Speed is defined as how rapidly a organic structure portion can be put into gesture or the velocity of contraction. This is necessary in touch football as a batch of fast motions and sprinting is required to maintain up with drama. to run past oppositions or gimmick oppositions. The game is played at a fast gait to seek and catch the guardians out of place or off guard and to do it easier to acquire past them. Cardio-respiratory endurance is a cardinal constituent to the game of Touch as it is the capacity of your bosom. blood vass and lungs to work expeditiously to present O during uninterrupted activity. Age. genetic sciences. and physical conditioning all play a function in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s cardiorespiratory endurance. With an enhanced ability to take in O and present it to working musculuss. the musculuss are able to go on activity longer without weariness. 6: Cardio-respiratory endurance is of import in many athleticss and is something that many jocks should better. Two developing methods that could be used to better this are Fartlek and Interval preparation. Both manners of preparation are utile and specific to many squad athleticss including touch football as they are similar to the type of work done in a game. Interval developing involves jumping periods of activity with periods of remainder and can be categorised by short. intermediate or long interval preparation. Short interval preparation develops power. intermediate develops lactic acerb tolerance and long develops aerophilic power. To aim the ATP-CP system the work to rest ratio should be 1:3/1:25. to aim the Lactic acid system it should be 1:2/1:3 and for the aerophilic system it should be 1:1. Fartlek preparation is considered to be a mixture of interval and uninterrupted preparation. This is achieved by making a uninterrupted activity and integrating random explosions of velocity or addition of strength. Both types of preparation should integrate the preparation rules which include progressive overload. fluctuation. specificity. individualism. recovery. decreasing returns. frequence. continuance. strength and reversibility. Progressive overload is the construct of gradual increasing the demand to do betterments. If the preparation burden remained unchanged. no farther betterments in fittingness would happen. This can be applied to fartlek preparation and interval preparation by increasing the figure of times an activity is done or at what strength it is done. For illustration if the fartlek preparation was to ramble on for one minute and dash for 5 seconds. the spring can be increased to 10 seconds. In interval developing the repeats could be increased. Variation should be included into both developing methods to non merely do betterments in fittingness. but to besides to guarantee the jock remains psychologically focused and motivated. To guarantee maximum betterment is achieved by the person. all rules should be considered when making a preparation plan.