Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Primarks Market Entry Proposal

Primarks Market Entry Proposal Introduction The decision to invest in a new and foreign market is not easy to make. A number of factors have to be taken into consideration. In spite of this, the decision to expand to foreign markets is not new to Primark. The company has taken these steps a number of times in the past.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Primark’s Market Entry specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, the company operates more than 250 stores in different parts of the world. The existence of these outlets is an indication that Primark has made deliberate steps to enter into new global markets in the past. A market analysis was conducted to determine the attractiveness of two potential countries that the company wanted to establish its operations in. The two were Brazil and Italy. The analysis revealed a lot about the company and the two countries. Evidently, the two markets have their own potentials for growth, especially in the apparel industry, which Primark specialises in. The issue of expansion into new markets in other countries is very critical to the operations of Primark. The growth is essential especially taking into consideration the nature of the industry this company operates in. There are numerous reasons why the company should go on with the expansion. In this executive summary, the justifications for selecting Brazil as the new frontier in Primark’s international venture are provided. The decision to expand to Brazil is supported by facts and figures, including a number of theories touching on international operations. Proposed Market Entry Strategies and Justification The proposed market strategy for Primark includes the utilisation of licensing in the first stage of entry. The second stage of expansion should be carried out with the help of complete ownership strategy. It is important to note that licensing is suitable for Primark since the global apparel industry is currently experiencing intense competition. Complete ownership would afford the company advantages associated with independence, once established in the new market through licensing.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Primark’s Entry Strategy: Recommendations A number of recommendations are made based on the findings from the market analysis conducted on the two target markets (Italy and Brazil). The recommendations are as follows: Brazil is the ideal market for expansion between the two. Expanding to Italy is not a good idea at this stage. Two market entry strategies are proposed. They include licensing and total ownership. Licensing should be conducted at the first stage of market entry. Complete ownership should then follow. It should come after the brand is already established in the new market. Background The current case study focused on the assessment of the at tractiveness of both Italy and Brazil. The aim was to determine the best market for Primark’s expansion objective. The analysis and evaluation of the target markets revealed that Brazil is more promising compared to Italy. According to Sako (2006: 500), the motive to expand internationally is informed by the mission and vision statements of the company. In addition to the objective of increasing its profits, it is apparent that Primark aims at offering the customers high quality products. In addition, the company has a reputation of dealing with up-to-date and fashionable apparel. The products are sold at what can be regarded as affordable prices, which translate to value for customer’s money. The values will inform the entry of this company into the new market. The international ambitions of Primark are made evident by the more than 250 stores it operates in Europe Primark’s decision to expand internationally can be analysed from the perspective of normative de cision’s theory. According to this theoretical framework, the decision to enter into a foreign market should take into consideration the trade-offs between returns and risks (Caves 2007: 21). Consequently, Primark should go for the entry mode with the highest possibilities for risk-adjustment in relation to returns on investment. The availability of resources, together with the need for control, should also play a key role in the determination of the preferred entry mode. Dunning (1988:5) highlights the issue of resource availability with regards to international trade. According to Dunning, the concept entails the managerial and financial capabilities of the firm to survive in the given foreign market. Control, on the other hand, implies the need exhibited by the firm to influence systems, decision, and methods of conducting business in that particular market.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Primark’s Market Entry specifically for you for o nly $16.05 $11/page Learn More The factors enumerated above determine the linkages between the firm-level and the nation-level analyses of international markets. An evaluation of the two markets at the nation level settled on Brazil as the ideal market for Primark to further its expansion objectives. It is a fact that competition in the Brazilian apparel industry is very high. However, market conditions indicate the availability of opportunities for the establishment of a new company (Artigas and Calicchio 2007: 72). Furthermore, the analysis indicates that the adoption of the appropriate set of entry strategies can help Primark penetrate this market. The selection of Brazil as the preferred market for Primark is based on various nation-level factors. According to PricewaterhouseCoopers International Limited [PWC] (2013:5), Brazil has recently emerged as a strong and attractive economic player in the world. The degree of economic diversification in the country is hig h. In addition, the South American nation has a large domestic consumer market. The financial systems are well regulated, making the country an attractive option for Primark. According to Dunning (1988: 2), the general framework for determining market-specific and firm-specific factors influencing international expansion is fourfold. The factors of control, resources, risk and returns are essential to the analysis. The following proposal takes into consideration all these aspects of Primark at the firm level. In addition, the strategies proposed for the market entry appreciate nation-specific factors that will influence Primark’s activities. Analysis of Market Opportunities in Brazil Before going international, a firm should conduct an environmental analysis of the target market. The analysis of Brazil as the preferred market was conducted from different perspectives. The impacts of country-specific factors on the operations of the company were reviewed.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are various classical theories touching on international trade. The theoretical frameworks propose varying elements of comparative advantage, which make some countries more ideal for investment than others (Dunning 1988: 12). They also advance factor endowments that make a country a preferred international destination. The factors include land, labour, natural resources, and population size (Krugman 1999: 14). Nation-level analysis of Brazil is based on Dunning’s framework for expansion into foreign markets and Porter’s diamond model. According to Porter (1998:41), nations have the capacity to create new and advanced factor endowments. Factors countries can create include skilled labour, culture, government support, knowledge base, as well as advanced technologies (Porter 1998: 42). Consequently, the diamond model advanced by Porter illustrates the national advantages of Brazil in relation to Primark’s expansion objective. The individual factors in Porterà ¢â‚¬â„¢s model which constituted a nation’s comparative advantage included factor conditions and demand conditions (Porter 1998: 42).Other factors included related and supporting industries, coupled with firm strategy, structure and rivalry. Figure 1: Porter’s Diamond Model Source: Porter (1998: 41). Factor conditions refer to the situation in the country, with regard to production elements. Production factors include infrastructure, skilled labour, and technological base, among others. According to PWC (2013: 19), the economy of Brazil is large, and the infrastructure in most parts of the country is well developed. In addition, as an emerging economy, the country is developing very rapidly in relation to skilled labour and technological development (Porter 1998: 44). The apparel industry in Brazil is also fairy established with numerous brands, meaning that skilled labour in this industry is abundant. Demand conditions aspect of Porter’s diamond model entails the local demand for the products and services the investing company offers (Porter 1998: 44). According to MarketLine (2013:17), the apparel retail industry in Brazil is experiencing a strong growth. For instance, the value of the industry is forecasted to increase by 39.8% between 2012 and 2017 (MarketLine 2013:12). The growth is based on increasing demand in the apparel industry. Related and supporting industries in Porter’s diamond model referred to the non-existence or existence of other internationally competitive industries (Porter 1998: 45). According to PWC (2013: 153), Brazil importance in the global economy is attested for by the numerous international organisations based there. Some of the apparel companies in the country also indicate the level of competitiveness in the industry. The presence of these supporting industries in Brazil indicates that, innovativeness in the industry becomes a necessity. In addition, Primark would be able to enjoy more cost effective inputs. Firm strategy, structure, and rivalry in Porter’s diamond model referred to the conditions in the country that determine establishment and organisation of companies (Porter 1998: 45). In addition, this aspect of the model determines management of the company. Consequently, these conditions determine the kind of competition in the particular country. In Brazil, most of the major players in the apparel industry are local firms. According to MarketLine (2013:12) the retail apparel industry is fairly fragmented, although the recent growth of the industry has helped lessen rivalry. Despite of this rivalry however, Primark would have the relative advantage of offering unique imported products. The role of the government in determining success of enterprises in any country cannot be underestimated. The government ultimately facilitates business environment in the particular country, for instance through policies and regulations. According to PWC (2013: 72), Brazil is a membe r of numerous international trade agreements. Some of the agreements include the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTA), and the Amazon Cooperation Treaty [ACT] (PWC 2013: 73). Other agreements include World Trade Organisation (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change (PWC 2013: 73). Membership to such organisations indicates the country’s openness to international trade, a factor that favours Primark immensely. Labour laws in Brazil are, however, strict. In addition, there are tax regulations and requirements for all foreign companies to register with the Ministry of Development and Foreign Commerce (PWC 2013: 88). Despite of the political and legal risks involved in Brazil, the returns outweigh them, leaving a country a very ideal market for Primark investment. Usually, many countries will seek to protect local enterprises, due to the uncertainties associated with multinational firms. Attractiveness of the Country The nation-level ana lysis through Porter’s Diamond attests to the potential of Brazil’s apparel industry and the benefits associated with establishing operations here. Below are some of the reasons why the country is attractive for investment: Foreign investments are generally welcome in Brazil. Brazil is the leading country in Latin America in terms of investment opportunities. All major agencies in the world have granted the country Investment Grade rating. Local auditing and accounting standards are in line with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Recent changes in the business culture and the promotion of best practices in corporate governance are favourable to new investors (PWC 2013:31). However, Primark should be wary of some of the challenges associated with doing business in Brazil. The country is ranked as ‘fair’ with regards to the ease of establishing operations (KPMG 2012: 12). Figure 2: Ranking of Brazil in terms of ease of doing business Source: KPMG (2012: 12). The rising trend in foreign direct investments (FDI) in Brazil further indicates the attractiveness of the country. According to KPMG (2012:9), the country recorded a positive growth in FDI in the period between 2006 and 2011. The trend is expected to persist. Figure 3: FDI in Brazil Source: KPMG (2012: 9). Company’s Situation Analysis The firm-level analysis conducted on Primark was based the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) framework (Hill and Westbrook 1997: 47). Strengths constitute the internal factors giving Primark an edge over competitors. Weaknesses constitute internal factors resulting to a company being at a disadvantage relative to competitors. Opportunities constitute the external elements, which an organisation can exploit to its advantage. The business is also faced by a number of threats. They include factors that are external to the entity, and which may derail efforts to achieve business objective. Some of the key strengths of Primark that can favour it in the intended venture include the positive reputation and popular brand names. In addition, the strong supply chain, and the beneficial trade relations established in the other countries reflect positively for Primark. The major weakness of the company is however the low margins recorded in some of its branches. In exception of poor business environment conditions, the company might not be ready to expand further due to poor management. The key opportunities that Primark faces include the highly untapped Brazilian apparel industry, by international retailers. In addition, Brazil has a very large consumer base (Artigas Calicchio 2007: 76).The only apparent threat to Primark is the global economic depression, whose aftermaths might still be evident in the Brazilian apparel industry. Readiness to go Overseas The readiness of Primark to go overseas cannot be denied. The firm-level analysis reveals strengths of the company, which would be v ery beneficial in overseas ventures. In addition, the company has considerable experience of foreign markets entry from its operations in Europe. The national-level analysis also indicates immense opportunities for the company in the Brazilian apparel industry. Hence, all indicators point out that Primark is ready for overseas ventures. Market Entry Strategy Koch (2001:351) proposes a holistic model for market entry and market selection processes (MEMS). The design of the model takes into account all contexts of the business and the relevant practices. It highlights the external, internal, and mixed category factors that inform the selection of the market. The model is shown below: Figure 4: Factors influencing market selection Source: Koch (2001:352). The factors affecting the selection of mode of market entry are also depicted in Koch’s model as shown below: Figure 5: Factors influencing market entry mode selection Source: Koch (2001:353). Primark can use Koch’s mo del to select a strategy that is suitable in entering Brazil. Based on the findings made in the nation-level and firm-level analyses, licensing emerges as the preferred entry strategy. According to Brouthers (2002: 206), licensing entails a firm in one country granting another company in a foreign country to manufacture, process, or use the licensor’s trademark. The domestic firm apparently enters into licensing contract with the foreign firm, allowing it usage of certain intellectual properties for payment of loyalties or given sales percentage. Intellectual properties licensed can include designs, patents, and name of the firm. One of the major advantages of licensing is that the strategy has low risks associated with it during expansion internationally, and it is relatively easy and quick (Anderson and Coughlan 1987: 74). In addition, the licensor (in this case Primark) has the opportunity of capitalising on the licensee’s country specific knowledge. The licensee Pr imark enter into a licensing agreement with will have better knowledge and experience in relation to Brazilian apparel industry. Although licensing spreads the risks of entry into new markets to the licensee, the main risk of this strategy is risk to the reputation of the licensor. A licensee with poor reputation will ultimately ruin the reputation of the licensor. Other disadvantages of licensing include very little control to the licensor, and likelihood of the licensee becoming a major competitor. Wholly owned foreign operations involve the expanding company establishing a complete base of operations in the target market (Brouthers 2002: 207). The strategy is the most extensive, since it would require total involvement by the company. Fully owned operations have the greatest advantage of total control. However, the disadvantages of this entry strategy are also high. For instance, this method of entry exhibits the highest financial risks. In addition, the company might take relati vely longer duration to get established in the market, or even fail altogether. Implementation of Market Entry Strategy In the first stage entry level, Primark should use licensing as the market entry strategy. As the brand gains more recognition in the market, the company should then result to total ownership. Initially, Primark should select several leading apparel retailers in the Brazilian market. After negotiations with these retailers, the company should settle on the one with the most reasonable, attractive, and profitable deal. The licensing should then be entered in, for a specified duration of time. Primark will have to allow the licensee the permission to use the company’s trademarks, brand, among other intellectual rights. The licensing contract should be projected to a period during which Primark brand should be fairly established in the Brazilian apparel industry. After the contract termination, Primark should then establish wholly owned operations in the Brazil ian apparel industry. Conclusion The nation-level analysis of Brazil reveals the potential of the market for a foreign international apparel retailer. It is a fact that the country poses some challenges to a new entrant. However, the potential returns outweigh these risks. The firm-level analysis also reveals that Primark is fairly experienced in entering international markets. The numerous stores the company operates in Europe attest to this. However, the company should approach the Brazilian market cautiously since apparel consumers there have a different view of the industry. The products the company offers in the European markets differ with those demanded by consumers in Brazil. References Anderson, E., and Coughlan, A.T. (1987). ‘International market entry and expansion via independent or integrated channels of distribution’. Journal of Marketing, 51 (1), 71-82. Artigas, M., and Calicchio, N. (2007). ‘How half of the world shops: apparel in Brazil, China, an d India’. The McKinsey Quarterly, 1 (4), 68-79. Brouthers, K. D. (2002). ‘Institutional, cultural and transaction cost influences on entry mode choice and performance’. Journal of International Business Studies, 33 (2), 203-221. Brouthers, K.D., Brouthers, L.E., and Wilkinson, T.J. (1995). ‘Strategic alliances: choose your partners’. Long Range Planning, 28 (3),18-25. Caves, R. E. (2007). Multinational enterprise and economic analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press. Dunning, J. (1988). ‘The eclectic paradigm of international production: a restatement and some possible extensions’. Journal of international Business Studies, 19 (Spring), 1-31. Hill, T., and Westbrook, R. (1997). ‘SWOT analysis: it’s time for a product recall’. Long Range Planning, 30 (1), 46-52. Koch, A.J. (2001). ‘Factors influencing market and entry mode selection: developing the MEMS model’. Marketing Intelligence Planning, 19 (5 ), 351-361. KPMG (2012). Investing in Brazil: a land of opportunities. Web. Krugman, P. (1999). ‘The role of geography in development’. International Regional Science Review, 22 (2), 12-32. MarketLine. (2013). Marketline industry profile: apparel retail in Brazil. Web. Porter, M.E. (1998). The competitive advantage of nations, New York: Free Press. PricewaterhouseCoopers International Limited. (2013). Doing business and investing in Brazil. Web. Sako, M. (2006). ‘Outsourcing and off-shoring: implications for productivity of business services’. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 22 (4), 499-512.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Lord Neubergers advice on clearer legal writing - Emphasis

Lord Neubergers advice on clearer legal writing Lord Neubergers advice on clearer legal writing When it comes to calls for improving legal writing, few are made with more authority than this. Lord Neuberger of Abbotsbury, President of the Supreme Court, has said that judges themselves need to change the way they write – or risk losing the public’s confidence in the entire justice system. Lord Neuberger made the claim in a recent lecture to the British and Irish Legal Information Institute (BAILII). His main focus was on writing and reporting judgments (or should that be judgements?), but many of his comments are relevant to legal writing in general. ‘It is not realistic to expect that every Judgment could be understood by everyone:    human nature, the complexities of modern life, and the intricacies of the law do not permit that,’ he said. ‘However, if we are to maintain public confidence in the justice system, judges must make their Judgments as accessible as possible, particularly to members of the public and litigants-in-person.’ Even lawyers prefer simple writing To illustrate the importance of clear writing, he gave an example from a study by the American law professor Joe Kimble. As part of the study, The Straight Skinny on Better Judicial Opinions, Professor Kimble sent two versions of the same judgment to 700 lawyers. Version A was the original judgment, picked as an average sample, not an especially bad one (though Lord Neuberger described it as having ‘Proustian length sentences without Proust’s literary merit’). Version B had been rewritten in plainer language. Here’s the opening paragraph of version A: ‘Plaintiff Robert Wills filed a declaratory judgment against defendant State Farm Insurance Company to determine whether defendant has a duty to pay benefits under the uninsured motorist provisions found in plaintiff’s policy with defendant. Pursuant to the parties’ stipulated statement of facts, the trial court granted summary disposition in plaintiff’s favor upon finding coverage where gunshots fired from an unidentified automobile passing plaintiff’s vehicle caused plaintiff to drive off the road and suffer injuries. Defendant appeals as of right. We reverse and remand. And here’s the opening paragraph of version B: ‘Robert Wills was injured when someone drove by him and fired shots toward his car, causing him to swerve into a tree. He filed a declaratory-judgment action to determine whether State Farm had to pay him uninsured-motorist benefits. The issue is whether there was a ‘substantial physical nexus’ between the unidentified car and Wills’s car. The trial court answered yes and granted a summary disposition for Wills. We disagree and reverse. We do not find a substantial physical nexus between the two cars, because the bullets were not projected by the unidentified car itself.’ The lawyers expressed a ‘strong preference’ for version B. Asked why they preferred it, they said because it had a summary at the beginning, left out unnecessary detail, and was more concise. And if the lawyers found version A harder to read, despite their extensive legal training, the general public barely stand a chance. ‘First, the fact that legal professionals are trained to read Judgments is no excuse for poor Judgment-writing,’ said Lord Neuberger. ‘Secondly, reference to lawyers, judges and academics is myopic. They are only part of the audience. The public are the real audience.’ Two recommendations for clearer judgments Lord Neuberger made two proposals for how judges could improve the accessibility of judgments. 1. Start with a judgment summary Firstly, to include a short summary at the start. This would be particularly helpful to self-represented litigants without ready access to professionally published law reports from the Incorporated Council of Law Reporting (ICLR), he said. ‘It would not be as long as a law report headnote, or as one of the press summaries prepared by the Supreme Court. But it should be sufficient to enable a non-lawyer to know the facts, the issues, and how and why they were resolved.’ 2. Use a clear structure Secondly, he called for a clearer framework for all judgments, including a table of contents at the beginning ‘to give better guidance to the structure and contents of longer Judgments’, and appropriate headings and signposts throughout the document. ‘Kimble’s study confirms that this is not just a good discipline but it is what the legal professional readers want, and, if it is what lawyers want, it is a fortiori what non-lawyers will want. A clear structure aids accessibility.’ (A fortiori means ‘all the more so’. Peppering your arguments with Latin isn’t the best example of aiding accessibility – perhaps Lord Neuberger should take a little of his own advice here.) Keep it concise Lord Neuberger also made what he described as a more controversial suggestion: ‘that judges could take a more rigorous approach to cutting the length of their Judgments’. That didn’t mean they should go as far as Judge James Murdoch of the UX Tax Court, he said, quoting: ‘It is reputed that a taxpayer testified, â€Å"As God is my judge, I do not owe this tax†. Judge Murdoch replied, â€Å"He is not, I am; you do†.’ However, there were opportunities to reduce the length of judgments by cutting unnecessary content. ‘Judges should weed out the otiose. We should, for instance, remove unnecessary displays of learning, or what the Lord Chief Justice, Lord Judge, recalls his history teacher marking on his essay, APK, anxious parade of knowledge.’ Say what needs to be said, give the readers the information they need, and no more. You can read the speech, which also covers judgment reporting and dissemination, in full here. To see a case study of how we helped   commercial law firm Nabarro LLP, click here.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Report on the airline and aircraft and manufacturing industries Essay

Report on the airline and aircraft and manufacturing industries - Essay Example The barriers to entry are high and so very few prospective players are looking forward to enter. The industry is impacted by macro-environmental factors which help to shape demand for its commercial aircrafts. The factors that drive demand in this industry include economic growth as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) and growth in regional and international trade. These factors have historically impacted on growth in regional and international travel. With the abatement of the global recession in most regions, it is expected that the demand for commercial aircrafts will increase resulting in between 26,000 and 31,000 new commercial aircrafts of varying types being demanded. The demand for new aircraft will also be stimulated by the need to replace retiring aircrafts with new and more energy efficient aircrafts that burn less fuel and have more capacity to enable increases in revenue per passenger kilometre (RPK). Boeing and Airbus are the major players in the aircraft manufactu ring industry and both of them have produced market forecast for the 20 year period 2010 to 2029. They both have differences in their estimates of the number of aircrafts that will be required to fill demand for passenger seats during the period. They also have differing expectations on whether the point-to-point or hub and spoke is the best strategy to follow as both seek to ensure that whichever philosophy airlines choose, they are not disadvantaged. A SWOT analysis reveals that the companies have significant strengths and will be able to take hold of the opportunities and minimise weaknesses and threats in both the micro and macro-environments. A TOWS analysis model was used to determine what strengths could be used to take hold of opportunities and minimise threats and weaknesses and turn them into opportunities where possible. Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Part A 2.0 Definition of the industry and its structure 2.1 An analysis of the micro-environment 2.1.1 Threat of sub stitute products 2.1.2 Barriers to entry 2.1.3 Power of suppliers 2.1.4 Power of customers/buyers 2.1.5 Competitive rivalry 2.2 An analysis of the macro-environment 2.2.1 Political factors 2.2.2 Economic factors 2.2.3 Social factors 2.2.4 Technological factors 2.2.5 Legal factors 2.2.6 Ecological factors 3 Part B 3.0 Developing a strategy 3.1 Market Forecasts 3.1.1 Boeing’s Market Forecasts 3.1.2 Airbus’s Market Forecasts 3.1.3 Comparison of Forecasts 3.2 Situational Analysis of Boeing and Airbus 3.3 Situational Analysis using the SWOT model 3.3.1 Strengths 3.3.2 Weaknesses 3.3.3 Opportunities 3.3.4 Threats 3.4 Situational Analysis using the TOWS model 4.0 Conclusion 1.0 Introduction This report is divided into two parts. Part 1 identifies and analyses the structure of the commercial aircraft manufacturing industry with emphasis on its two major players Airbus of Europe and Boeing of the United States. It then analyses the competition in the industry and the demand con ditions facing industry players. An analysis of the macro-environment using the PESLE model and highlighting the main factors that will impact the industry has also been presented. Part 2 summarises market forecasts prepared by Airbus and Boeing and highlights the differences. In order to determine the ability of both companies to deal

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Critical Thinking Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 3

Critical Thinking - Article Example Since they are humans, they have the constitutional right to express themselves sexually (Higgins, 2008). Unfortunately, their disabled state puts them in great dangers as they often fall victim of sexual abuse and exploitation. Efforts by caregivers to protect them from such abuses could easily be misinterpreted as denying the disabled the right to sexual lives. This is in fact the conflicting part of their caregivers’ responsibility to the disabled. However, Bernert (2011) submit that care giving may be conducted in search a manner that guarantees maximum protection of the person with disability. For instance, such a person should be educated on matters pertaining to sex depending on their state. They should further be provided with equipment such as wheelchairs and allowed access to contraceptives. In addition, they can be helped foster good relationships that not only take note of their state, but that which is informed with the needs of such a person. It is only through this that the right of the persona with the disability can be guaranteed without the caregiver feeling like they are in a

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Training Roles & Respo Essay Example for Free

Training Roles Respo Essay Assignment 1: Roles, Responsibilities and Relationships of effective trainers| The purpose of this assignment is to help you to provide evidence to satisfy the following outcomes and assessment criteria. LO 1. Understand own role and responsibilities in lifelong learningP 1.1 Summarise key aspects of legislation, regulatory requirements and codes of practice relating to own role and responsibilitiesP 1.2 Explain own responsibilities for equality and valuing diversityP 1.3 Explain own role and responsibilities in lifelong learningP 1.4 Explain own role and responsibilities in identifying and meeting the needs of learnersLO 2. Understand the relationships between teachers and other professionals in lifelong learningP 2.1 Explain the boundaries between the teaching role and other professional rolesP 2.2 Describe points of referral to meet the needs of learnersP 2.3 Summarise own responsibilities in relation to other professionals 3. Understand own responsibility for maintaining a safe and supportive learning environmentP 3.1 Explain own responsibilities in maintaining a safe and supportive learning environmentP 3.2 Explain ways to promote appropriate behaviour and respect for others| ScenarioYou have been asked by your supervisor to prepare an important part of the handbook for new teachers in your department. Your tasks are to outline the roles, responsibilities and relationships of teachers teaching your subject.| Task 1: Prepare a list of legislation, regulatory requirements and codes of practice relevant to your role and responsibilities with the key aspects of each summarised. (P1.1)Task 2: Explain what equality and diversity mean, along with examples of your responsibilities towards meeting them. (P1.2)Task 3: Explain the roles and responsibilities of a teacher in the Lifelong Learning Sector and provide your job description and curriculum vitae.(P1.3)Task 4: Create a list of needs which your students might have. An explanation of how you will identify and meet these needs, based on your roles and responsibilities as a teacher.(P1.4)| Task 5: Compile a list of boundaries that a teacher might encounter. An explanation of what these boundaries are and how they relate to the teaching role and other professionals.(P2.1)Task 6: Make a list of potential needs of students. A description of relevant points of referral and support systems available such as people, agencies, organisations, websites etc. (P2.2)Task 7: List the teaching responsibilities and summarise these responsibilities in relation to other professionals.(P2.3)| Task 8: Explain your own responsibilities towards maintaining a safe and supportive learning environment. Use your job description, relevant organisation policies and procedures to support your answer. Cross reference this to Roles, responsibilities and relationships in lifelong learning 1.1 and 1.4.(P3.1)Task 9: Explanation of ways to promote appropriate behaviour and respect for others.(P3.2)| Sources of information: Use the notes provide, your own research, job description, rules and regulations of your institute and national and international legislations, rules and regulations.| This brief has been verified as being fit for purpose.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

The Gifted and Talented Essay -- Essays Papers

The Gifted and Talented The term â€Å"gifted† can mean many things. Up until recently it was the word used to describe people with profoundly high intelligence. Now, adding the words â€Å"creative† and â€Å"talented†, the category of giftedness has been extended to include not only exceptionally intelligent people, but also people with extraordinary ability in other areas, not just with IQ tests (Drew, Egan, & Hardman, 2002). The identification and definition of giftedness have been controversial for many, many decades. Originally, IQ test scores were the only way of determining giftedness. An IQ test would be given and some number score, such as 12-, would be the point of cut-off (Cook, Elliott, Kratochwill, & Travers, 2000). More recently, intellectual giftedness is usually identified and defined by the specific school systems’ ideas and perspectives. There is no generally accepted definition of giftedness, but the Javits Gifted and Talented Education Act defines it as: â€Å"Children and youth with outstanding talent perform or show the potential for performing at remarkably high levels of accomplishment when compared with others of their age, experience, or environment. These children and youth exhibit high performance capability in intellectual, creative, and/or artistic areas, possess an unusual leadership capacity, or excel in specific academic fields. They require services or activities not ordinarily provided by the schools. Outstanding talents are present in children and youth from all cultural groups, across all economic strata, and in all areas of human endeavor† (Drew et al., 2002). It is obvious there is practically no limit on who can be gifted. The problems lie in the wide range of definitions and the acce... ...fted education. Retrieved March 4, 2004, from http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content4/ legal.rights.gifted.ed.html Magnet/center and special programs. (n.d). Retrieved March 4, 2004, from http:// www.mcps.k12.md.us/departments/eii/eiispecialprogramspage.html#The%20Program Parke, B. (n.d.). Challenging gifted students in the regular classroom. Retrieved March 1, 2004, from http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content/Challenging_gifted _kids.html Shaunessy, E. (2003). State policies regarding gifted education. Gifted Child Today Magazine, 26. Retrieved March 7, 2004, from http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=10445176&db=f5h Winebrenner, S. (2003). Teaching strategies for twice-exceptional students [Electronic version]. Intervention in School and Clinic, 38. Retrieved March 4, 2004, from http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=EJ659359&db=eric

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Food Production and Poverty Essay

Most people live on just a few dollars a day. Whether you live in the wealthiest nations in the world or the poorest, you will see high levels of inequality. In a world of plenty, a huge number go hungry. Hunger is more than just the result of food production and meeting demands. The causes of hunger are related to the causes of poverty. One of the major causes of hunger is poverty itself. The Food and Agriculture Organization maintains that the world’s agriculture produces enough food to provide every person with at least 2,720 kilocalories every day for the world’s population (Eitzen, Zinn, Smith, 2011 pg.68). Problems of hunger, malnutrition and disease affect the poorest in society. Even though the world’s agriculture produces plenty of food, the food production is unevenly distributed, resulting in about 1 billion being malnourished which is 1 in six people, about one in every three of the world’s inhabitants being food insecure, and around 9 million people dying of malnutrition each year (Eitzen, Zinn, Smith, 2011 pg.68). The poorest are also typically disregarded from society and have little representation or opinion in public and political debates, making it even harder to escape poverty. Food supplies are adequate, but people must have the resources to afford them. Because the poor cannot afford the available food, they go hungry. This is where the relationship between poverty and food production link together. Political and economic conditions that keep prices too high, make jobs difficult to obtain and poorly paid, and force too many people to compete for too few resources. The major problem with food shortages is not food production, although that’s exceedingly important, but the political economy of the world and of the individual nations. There are many inter-related issues causing hunger, which are related to economics and other factors that cause poverty. They include land rights and ownership, diversion of land use to non-productive use, increasing emphasis on export-oriented agriculture, inefficient agricultural practices, war, famine, drought, over-fishing, poor crop yields, etc. (Eitzen, Zinn, Smith, 2011 pg.69). An example of non-productive use in farmland is using it to pasture cattle which is a tremendously wasteful use of land, water and energy but has a high demand for wealthy countries. A high percentage of agricultural land in the world is used to grow commodities such as cotton, sisal, tea, tobacco, sugar cane, and cocoa, items which are non-food products or contain very little nutrition (Shah, 2010). Grain is also another important food product which is used wasteful. For example more than half the grain grown in the United States (requiring half the water used in the U.S.) is fed to livestock, grain that would feed far more people than would the livestock to which it is fed (Shah, 2010). Grain is also is used to biofuels rather than food production. The result in that is that the prices of grain increase, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) estimates that 30% of the increase in the prices of the major grains is due to biofuels (Shah, 2010). The increasing use of biofuels also plays a huge part in food production because it diverts land away from food production and is used to grow crops for fuel such as ethanol. Biofuels have forced global food prices up by 75%, far more than previously estimated according to a World Bank report (Shah, 2010). The relationship between food production and poverty are basically because people don’t have enough money to buy food and also be able to put a roof over their head. The cost of food has increased dramatically over the past years and continues to rise due but not limited to the examples stated to previously in this paper. When we think about earning a living which for most families is already below means compared to the cost of living we tend not to factor in food. More than one billion live off of less than $2.50 a day which usually needs to support your family and yourself. Food production may be threatened, but it is international trade, economic policies and the control of land that have led to enormous poverty/hunger issues therefore leading to less access and high prices for food.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Arthur Miller wrote the play Essay

What Miller does do to excellent effect is keep the pace of the plot speeding along and twisting in different directions all the time, at one time the focal point is on Danforth and his control of the court, then at another it is Abigail and the girls feigning that Mary Warren’s spirit has possessed them. Throughout this extract he keeps the dramatic effect by having many different plot lines run into each other at this point; Proctor’s attempt to save Elizabeth, Mary Warren’s declaration that the girls are putting on a show and Abigail Williams’ and the girls dramatic role-play claiming Mary Warren is sending her spirit out on them. All of these plot lines are intertwined in the court room scene and are exposed in John Proctor’s announcement that he is guilty of lechery. Some of the central themes and concerns in The Crucible are evident in this extract intolerance, being a society run strictly by a theocracy means that Salem is run by strict laws and religion. Any wavering outside these rules or religious thoughts is unacceptable. Danforth is intolerant when listening to Proctor and Giles Corey’s attempted reasoning and proposals. Salem at this time was intolerant of any un-natural endeavours, just as America in the 1950’s was intolerant of any un-American activities or communists. Acts of search and arrest became known as McCarthyism, led by Senator John McCarthy. Hanging those who were accused was seen as restoring purity to the theocracy in Salem. Another recurring theme in The Crucible is that of personal reputation. In this extract Proctor seeks to keep his name from being tarnished by giving testament against Abigail claiming that she is delivering her accusations through jealousy of his wife Elizabeth, and by announcing that he has committed adultery through his affair with Abigail. Reverend Parris acts only on what he thinks is best for his reputation throughout the whole play, particularly in this extract when he lies about seeing the girls naked dancing in the woods, â€Å"I do not deny they danced, but I never saw any of them naked†. Parris lies in order to keep his reputation, for if it were released that he had found his daughter and many other girls dancing naked in the woods and ‘compacting with the devil’ then he would be driven from his office as the reverend of Salem. Judges Danforth and Hathorne are both unwilling to accept that Proctor is innocent and do not want to admit to being deceived by a bunch of girls claiming witchcraft and are therefore forced to charge John Proctor to keep their own reputations, making the interrogation partial towards the young girls and unfair on Proctor. The other central theme of the play is the role that hysteria can play in societies. The lies by Abigail all the way through the play and particularly in this extract easily manipulate the judges and the residents of Salem to turn against the accused which ultimately leads to their executions. Miller has linked this hysterical theme to the McCarthyism period in which he lived in the 1950’s, the hysteria led by Senator Joseph McCarthy and his hunt for communists and communist sympathisers in post WWII America and during the Cold War. Miller seems to have based his character Judge Danforth on the individual Senator Joseph McCarthy: both are over-seeing the hysteria of the communities and are leading the search for the accused and presiding over their trials.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Uncommon Author - An Interview with Eliot Peper

Uncommon Author - An Interview with Eliot Peper Uncommon Author - An Interview with Eliot Peper â€Å"For someone who loves a book, would make their day? What would make them happy or make them think of it again or think that it’s cool? And I’m always struggling with that.†Update! We interview Eliot again for the release of the sequel to Uncommon Stock - come check it out!Eliot Peper is the nicest man in the world. At least, that’s how we felt coming away from our interview. His first novel, ‘Uncommon Stock,’ a startup thriller, is both an indie success story and the debut book from Colorado’s FG Press. Eliot’s background is in venture capital and consulting for the tech industry, including spells running his own startups. We met to talk about what it was like transitioning from entrepreneur to authorpreneur, and what it was like working with the newly-minted FG Press.Edit: As of 2016, FG Press has closed its doors. Eliot Peper is now a full-time indie author.- -REEDSYYour first novel is about startups. You’ve had pl enty of experiences in the business world, but had you written much before?ELIOT PEPERI hadn’t written fiction since high school, but I had experience with storytelling. My background was in startups -  I was a founder, then an early employee at a couple of different startups, and then an entrepreneur-in-residence at a VC fund. As you guys I’m sure know yourselves, the fuzzy front-end of building a business, most of it’s storytelling. You’re trying to pitch investors, you’re trying to bring in talent, you’re trying to tell people about the problem you’re trying to address; you’re always telling stories whether it’s to customers, investors, partners, team members -  that’s a lot of what you do on a day-to-day basis. So I’d been doing a ton of that, but I’d not been doing anything like writing a novel.REEDSYI thought it was interesting how widely your book was picked up by the b usiness community. A lot of business writing is generally non-fiction, right?ELIOT PEPERNon-fiction is interesting for obvious reasons. Most non-fiction is â€Å"Here are the lessons I learned doing something,† or with biographies â€Å"What did this person learn through living their life?† For business, I find fiction particularly interesting because it gives you this secret window inside the character’s head.There’s a boatload of non-fiction out there about business -  â€Å"I built GM, or I was the CEO of X company, so here are the things you should think about when starting a company or in your daily life.† But it doesn’t show you that, as I’m sure you guys are experiencing right now, when you’re building a business it’s a human experience, right? Especially for founders who are struggling through their first company or their first couple of companies. It’s a crazy emotional roller coaster. The hum an side of startups doesn’t get a lot of exposure because everyone wants to talk about advice and best practices. Few people want to talk about how it destroyed their relationship with their wife; or how they were sleeping with their co-founder; or how for their series B round they were about to get a ten-x valuation bump on the first round until lead investor had a heart attack the night before and it fucked up their entire company. That stuff happens all the time. I’ve been shocked by the shit that goes down in Silicon Valley.People don’t talk about that stuff publicly in a non-fiction context -  they don’t want to make that their sort of public life. The beauty of fiction is that you can experience that alongside the character. You can give people a window into what it’s like to be the startup or to be in business. And I think for people interested in learning about entrepreneurship that’s really special because there’s a lot more to it that just lean product development.REEDSYYeah, like you don’t need to have abstracted a principle for a story to be useful to someoneELIOT PEPERI’m sure you guys are experiencing this if you have advisors or mentors that you’re going to for advice. You’ll talk to one guy and he’ll say â€Å"Well, in my last business we did this, and we learned that you have to do X.† Then you talk to someone else and they’ll give you the exact opposite advice based on a totally different anecdote.A lot of business non-fiction is like that -  it’s a lot of anecdotes, and it’s really easy to mythologise people. So you look at the big names like Steve Jobs or whatever, and once they’ve achieved success it always feels like you can retroactively go back and say why they achieved success in the past. That’s a really weird thing to do. From a scientific process perspective that’s really bad, b ut that essentially covers all narrative non-fiction. You have to have that â€Å"What did you learn at the end of the fable?† ending, and I think fiction gives you a lot more freedom in that sense. You’re exploring just how humans wrestle with and overcome obstacles. Those obstacles could be killing Gilgamesh, or it could be taking a company public.REEDSYIt’s like parables, basically, or Aristotle’s version of Ethics. He doesn’t try to say what bravery is, he just says â€Å"Bravery is Achilles.†ELIOT PEPERI think the human mind is wired to understand complex problems through stories. It’s boring to read a complex problem that isn’t part of narrative.REEDSYHow have you applied your startup background to the daily routine of writing? I feel like a lot of startup advice is of the ‘work smarter, not harder’ variety. Can you apply that to writing?ELIOT PEPERI think the process of writing is very grinding, in terms of the actual drafting of the manuscript. I don’t even know how you would go about doing that smarter. I don’t really outline, I just spend time brainstorming constantly. On a walk I’ll think about where the characters are, where things are heading, what the next scene should be, what the final scene should be. I feel like I’m in good shape if I know the next scene I’m gonna write, and some kind of North Star that the climax will be. If I have more than that planned out it usually gets stale or I don’t stick to it anyway. I have to spend time immersed in the world psychologically, then I sit down, start writing, and there’s very little I can do aside from forcing myself to make the time, sit in front of Word, and not go on twitter. A lot of it is knowing how to be diligent and how to have discipline.That corresponds to business. It’s way too prevalent with my friends in tech and the startup world who are like â€Å"Oh my God I wa s up until 4am finishing this last release!† To me that’s like saying â€Å"Oh my God, I’m terrible at managing my time!† You know, that’s basically what you’re saying. It was less that I tried to take the lesson ‘work hard at all costs,’ and instead take the lesson ‘only do what matters.’ That’s really difficult to do.As an author it’s so easy to spend all my time blogging and emailing and pitching journalists or influencers to try and get more coverage for the book, to do events, to do signings, to just be on Twitter and Facebook or whatever promotional tools you’re using. You can let that suck away all your time. But at the end of the day the people who read my books, my actual readers, they just want the next book -  they don’t give a shit what I post on Twitter. To an extent, me having a public face, at least they can feel like they’re getting to know me.But you rea lly have to look back and say â€Å"I need to be spending at least the majority of my time doing what actually matters.† In business it’s just as difficult. It’s very easy to spend your time just being external facing when the only reason people are going to be interested in you is to improve their lives by solving a problem. If you’re not solving that problem in what you’re doing every day, that’s a problem.I think that’s probably the one lesson I took from business. The ‘work smarter, not harder’ side’s more relevant in the PR side of things and how you connect with readers. We’re trying to experiment with that. I have a twitter account for the protagonist of ‘Uncommon Stock.’ We built a real website for the fictional startup in the book. We got Foundry Group, the VC firm, to announce an investment in them on April Fools day. That’s sort of fun. My dearest hope is that if I do something that delights my readers, that when they’re at happy hour tonight and they’re quaffing a beer, they’ll say to their friend â€Å"OK, they actually did this.† If that happens that’s one more word-of-mouth referral. Anything I can do to inspire or delight my readers, that’s what I’m going for.REEDSYIt seems like delighting a reader is much healthier than growth hacking.ELIOT PEPERYeah. If you look at the public discourse about how to get readers, the majority of it is the growth hacking kind of stuff. It’s all about how can you engineer your own success and manipulate people into liking you, and I don’t know -  I don’t really like to be manipulated as a reader, so I don’t really want to do that as a writer.REEDSYDo you have any role-models in the self-publishing space?ELIOT PEPERI like Hugh Howey. He’s the wà ¼nderkind, right? But he’s also really personal and personable. He shares what he does, and it feels real. Or, you know Neal Stephenson? He’s a prototypical Big 5 author; he’s been a best-selling author for decades, he has a huge audience, in that sense he’s very mainstream. But he writes on Slashdot and other random forums all the time. The people writing for the New York Times Book Review would never have heard of these places. He’s interesting because if you go to his website, it’s pretty minimal. It’s sort of lame. But he’s also on Slashdot and all these random place, writing super in-depth, honest answers to forum questions from trolls. I find that compelling because it’s like â€Å"That’s pretty cool, you’re just being real, that’s who you are, you’re a sort of goofy nerdy guy, you read Slashdot so you started writing there too.† It’s been very popular. His forum posts turn into memes that people share around writing blogs -  I think thatâ €™s fun.You don’t even have to stick to publishing. Macklemore self-published his first albums, was never signed by a major label, and was able to build a fan-base because his songs are awesome and he made funny videos for them. Now he’s turned that into having some of the top-listed songs over the past couple of years. That’s pretty cool, that’s pretty fun. With the writers I admire most the biggest thing is they write really good stuff, but the other part is in the rest of their lives they come across as really genuine.REEDSYWhat sort of relationship are you building between yourself and your readers?ELIOT PEPERI try to think of writing as literally storytelling. I don’t just hand over the manuscript and that’s that. I try to think of it like I’m literally sitting at a campfire talking to people. If you’re sitting at a campfire with your friends, you don’t want to be awkward, right? It’s better to tell a sto ry they want to hear. And afterwards you’re still their friend. It’s not like the relationship is over -  you’re going to roast marshmallows over the fire and have a conversation about it. That’s how I look at being a writer. I can connect with my readers in a new way or share something with them they might not otherwise know. Like on my blog I write about business because some of my readers are interested in startups and that’s part of why they read my stuff, but I also share personal stuff because if they like my book they might want to know more about me.Do you know Joss Whedon? I find him really interesting. I’m not very sophisticated about films, but what he’s famous for is that while many of the shows he’s made haven’t been that popular in terms of ratings, the people who did watch it were obsessed with it. He’s had the highest aftermarket sales of anyone. The prototypical guy for this is George Lucas. He turned a weird 70s sci-fi movie into the underlying mythology of America, and represents some enormous amount of toy sales and other crazy external licensing sales.The guys who are now doing all these superhero movies are obsessed with Joss Whedon because they’re trying to do the same with these comic book franchises. So they’re trying to take X-Men and turn it into these multiple blockbuster movies but also have video-games and all these other ways fans can experience the story. Joss says he has one question in mind that I think applies to every authors, and that’s â€Å"What can you do that would really delight your fans?† For people who really like your story, how can you double down and give them extra stuff that they would just want more and more of if they really love that story? There’s a really wonderful essay on this, that’s also relevant for early-stage entrepreneurs, called ‘1000 True Fans’.I’m still figuring that out. If people read Uncommon Stock, what more would they want? I know they’d want the sequel because they’re all asking for it, so that’s good -  I’m working on that. But beyond that what are other things that, for someone who loves a book, would make their day? What would make them happy or make them think of it again or think that it’s cool? And I’m always struggling with that.If I was constantly thinking about how I could sell more books, I wouldn’t enjoy the experience of being a writer much. If I want to look at the world cynically, my experience becomes cynical.REEDSYIt’s a bad filter on the creative process.ELIOTYou’re going to have a filter no matter what. If your filter is ‘how can I create something that people will love,’ that’s a fun filter to have. If your filter is ‘how can I create something that people will buy, not only is that less fun from the creativ e perspective, but it’s also very difficult to ascertain. It’s not obvious what people will buy. If you’re trying to select for that, it doesn’t mean you’re going to have any higher chance of success than someone who’s just trying to create something that people will love, and they’re going to have a much better time doing it.REEDSYYou worked with FG Press on ‘Uncommon Stock’ -  what was that like? Did it free you from the commercial pressures traditionally published authors work with, like having to earn out an advance?ELIOTFirst of all, FG Press gives no advances. You have a 50/50 split on all royalties. A typical big-5 contract gives the author about 15% -  that’s fancy math, but that’s more or less what it breaks down to. FG Press is giving a much larger cut on royalties and they’re giving no advance, and I wanted it that way. I think the advance system sets up the wrong in centive. Then the author is writing a book and selling it to a publisher, rather than selling it to a reader. The people who are important to me are my readers. My publisher is important to the extent that they help me either produce something better or do something that makes my readers more happy. I would self-publish in a heartbeat if FG Press was not providing those things for me.The commercial pressures are tied to advances, but the reason that authors are subject to those pressures is because they want the advance. That’s where things can get messy, and that’s part of what FG Press set out to try to do differently. Does that create different challenges? Of course. If you’re not giving advances, the writer has to support themselves until book sales start coming in -  if they do. That’s not a universally good decision -  you need to choose which risk factors you want to take on to produce the kind of content you want to make. T hat’s what they’re doing, that’s their model, and that’s why it’s different. They’re betting that authors who publish through them willingly want to build a readership and want to earn money based on how popular the damn book is, regardless of whether a high-level editor thinks you have potential.REEDSYWhat is FG Press offering their authors in exchange for the initial 50%?ELIOT PEPERFirst of all they’re writing the checks for the initial production costs. It’s true, they take that financial risk, so that’s great for authors who can’t write the checks to take the risks for editing and production. That’s useful and it shows that they’re committed to the title. It just doesn’t cost that much to produce a book. The part where they really add value is through helping to establish a community of readers. As a -  very personal -  example I was sharing my book with Brad becaus e I thought he would like it, and he’s a well-known guy among people who might also like it. If he likes it and writes a review of it, it could be really useful for helping me connect with new readers.When I wrote the book and we released it, that was super useful. Not only did he post about it but he talked to TechStars. TechStars bought ‘Uncommon Stock’ on a license for all of TechStars -  present and future founders. So every TechStars person now gets sent a digital copy of Uncommon Stock. I’d have never been able to achieve that on my own because I don’t have those relationships and I don’t know those people. But working with FG Press it was really cool to be able to do things like that. Or as another example, Foundry Group issued a fake investment. Would they have done that if I was a random self-published author? Probably not, right? So there have been many opportunities working with them for serendipity in terms of working with them that have definitely benefitted me hugely and that I really appreciate that I think also benefit readers. That was a cute stunt, and I wouldn’t have been able to do that for readers.Honestly, the way that I see it at the end of the day and the way that I think FG press is trying to build themselves and the philosophy they take to the table is that they want to just create a publishing model that makes common sense for authors and book production, and then they want to treat everyone like a friend. I’m doing a panel at a tech event. I called FG Press and said â€Å"Guys, I have this opportunity with this big panel -  wouldn’t it be fun if we could like get excerpts of the book to everyone going?† So we’re creating this co-branded landing page where everyone can go pick them up if they want to. Then FG Press said â€Å"If you’re looking for people for the panel, here are a couple of CEOs in the Foundry portfolio that cou ld be a good fit.† So that’s awesome, it makes the panel even better. And so I get to meet a bunch of CEOs who give me good material for my sequel. It’s an all-around everybody-wins.REEDSYHow important was it working with an editor?ELIOT PEPERFirst of all, I need an editor, and I think anyone who thinks they don’t is crazy. If you want to produce something that’s really fun to read, it needs to be edited by someone who knows what they’re doing.I had a couple of different stages. I shared the drafts with Brad but he wasn’t providing on-going feedback and I didn’t want him to. When I’m working on my first rough draft feedback slows me down, it doesn’t speed me up. I need to basically vomit onto the page, and then take that sack of shit in Word format and try to make it better. My first filtration process to try to make it slightly better was sending it to a couple of beta readers who I’d been really selective with. These were people who I had to trust would both be super honest -  not just say it was nice or whatever. I had to know that they’d give me lot of constructive negative feedback.They also each had a specific perspective they could add. One of them for example was probably the top Angel investor in San Diego, and he also studied Literature at Stanford. And so he has this dual perspective of knowing a lot about the English language and loving books, but also being very involved in tech and early-stage startups. I had a friend from grad school, who ended up being my developmental editor, who used to be an editorial exec in Hollywood. She had the whole movie perspective on how those structured plot elements. Movies are incredibly structured stories, and I don’t know that stuff. Having her perspective to help inform where the story could be improved was really useful. They sent back feedback in different forms. Some sent an email with high-level thoughts, s ome people sent me page references. I thought it through, took it on balance, incorporated it.Then I wanted to do a more in-depth, structural look at it because, as I said, I don’t really outline. That’s how I feel comfortable in the creative process but it means more work at the end because you end up having things that don’t work or don’t make sense or aren’t tight enough in terms of plot and character development. So I did three rounds of developmental editing with my friend from grad school. We made a lot of notes, had a couple of phone conversations, and then I would go through and address the problems I thought were important. We did three of those, and each got more gritty. The first one, she didn’t even make notes. She read it, wrote down thoughts, talked through some of the high-level issues. The next one was more scene-oriented, and the final one was more paragraph-by-paragraph.Once we were done with that, I did one more round of b eta readers, different people, got different feedback, incorporate it†¦ and that’s when Brad was giving a lot of detailed feedback. Finally, once we were satisfied with the content we moved onto language. So I did a round of copyediting, then two rounds of proofreading before formatting it for Kindle and print and all that.REEDSYThanks for your time Eliot.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

The Fifth Estate

The Fifth Estate The Fifth Estate The Fifth Estate By Maeve Maddox A movie about Julian Assange, the man who founded a website devoted to leaking information that governments wish to keep secret, is called The Fifth Estate. Most modern speakers associate the word estate with various types of property, for example, a grand house with extensive grounds the assets left by a deceased person a housing development The word estate in the expression fifth estate originates from a much earlier use of the word: An order or class regarded as part of the body politic, and as such participating in the government either directly or through its representatives. The earliest reference to this meaning of estate in the OED is dated 1380 when John Wyclif asserted that people belong to three categories ordained by God: priests, knights, and the â€Å"commons.† The concept evolved differently in different European countries, but the essential idea was to view society in terms of who had a voice in government. In England, the three estates came to be defined as Lords Spiritual (high-ranking clergy like bishops), Lords Temporal (nobility), and Commons. In France, the three estates were Clergy, Nobles, and Townsmen. A few European countries, like Sweden, recognized four estates, but it’s the three-estate concept that explains the development of the English expression fifth estate, A fact to keep in mind about the medieval third estate is that it did not include everyone who did not belong to the first two estates. The third estate was made up of wealthy landowners and merchants. The portion of the population that lacked rank or wealth lacked a political voice as well. The term fourth estate was coined in the 18th century as a figurative expression to label the sector of the population that exists outside the circle of established political power. Nowadays, the fourth estate has become a synonym for the Press, but in 1752, Fielding identified the fourth estate with â€Å"the Mob.† Various individuals and groups were referred to as â€Å"the fourth estate† before the term finally settled on the Press. Newspapers won the term because they were perceived as the voice of the politically or socially disenfranchised. If newspapers have sold out and become a part of the Establishment, then strictly speaking, the coinage â€Å"fifth estate† is unncessary. The mantle should simply be taken from the traditional Press and passed on to the Internet. However, maybe the term does represent something new. Perhaps the role of the fifth estate is not to provide everyone with a voice in government, but to provide a means of undermining government. So far, the meaning of fifth estate remains blurry. The earliest reference to its use in the OED refers to the medium of radio and is dated 1932. In a 1955 reference, the fifth estate is equated with trade unions. Only ten uses of fifth estate occur in the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) for the years 1990-2012. Six of those citations refer to the title of a television program. The Assange movie will doubtless have the effect of turning fifth estate into a buzz word. How the term’s figurative meaning will evolve remains to be seen. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:10 Rules for Writing Numbers and NumeralsList of Greek Words in the English LanguageKn- Words in English

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Peace and Conflict Studies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Peace and Conflict Studies - Essay Example ric. To misquote from one of George Orwell’s lesser-known sayings, where the British press is concerned, the facts and the rhetoric do not logically connect. Particularly where Britain is concerned, it will be necessary to disregard the rhetoric (as both sides of what is politely called the debate are equally guilty of distortion) and take the facts and form a picture from them, accepting that what passes for the accepted wisdom is not so much a tissue of lies as a tissue of invention. On the other hand, it has proved most interesting to try and find out the real reasons for the (2003) Iraq disaster and make the most of this opportunity to set the record straight. Hypothesis The fundamental hypothesis that the author wishes to put forward for the 2003 Anglo-American intervention in Iraq is that the ‘intervention’ (disaster would be a better word) took place for internal political reasons. In other words, nothing the Iraqis themselves, UN, EU, Russians, Chinese etc ., etc. would or could have done would have prevented the war, as both the British and U.S, metropolitan elites were completely impervious to any outside persuasion. We will start with Todd’s (who, despite his Anglophone name and ancestry, is French) analysis. He cites the main American internal political factors [2004, Pp 207-211 inclusive) as â€Å"economic mystification, ideological crisis and denial of reality†. He also introduces â€Å"evil, as a central concept†. If the author understands Todd correctly, the Americans (or at least their metropolitan elite) intervened in Iraq in order to perpetuate the actual (as opposed to stated) ideological and psychological aims of using American military power (which, it must be said, looks impressive, even if it isn’t in reality) to ensure that international investment (chiefly the purchase of U.S. Treasury bonds) is then channelled into U.S. domestic consumption. The mechanism appears to be that the funds gene rated by the bond purchases are used to fund the American imperial military, the money then being channelled through equipment purchases, salaries and base maintenance into the American economy at large - much of the money then being channelled back to the U.S. government through federal taxes. The ultimate expression of this is that wars (what Todd calls â€Å"theoretical micro-militarism†) against small countries such as Iraq are much more effective than peaceable military commitments in achieving this, as otherwise the purchasers of U.S. Treasury bonds might start asking awkward questions about where all the money is going. So much for economic mystification. We will now examine Todd’s concept of ideological crisis. Since the end of the â€Å"Cold War† (the author prefers the term ‘Grand Area Planning‘