Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Logos A Non Denomination Church Essay - 805 Words

LOGOS: Logos is a ministry here on campus that meets on Sunday mornings from 9:45-11:00 am in Polling. Logos is a non denomination church that started at Spring Arbor between six and eight years ago. With the church being located in the lobby in Polling, the â€Å"sanctuary† was set up more like you were going to have a guest speaker or a bible study in the space. At the front of there was a keyboard, guitar, a hand drum, and a few microphones. In the middle of the room they had placed seven or eight round tables. Two long tables with snacks and drinks were found in the back of the room. The congregation was very friendly and welcomed me with open arms. I had meet with Pastor Mark before service had started to get a little better understanding of the typical Sunday goes and he told me that they were on the more relaxed side and go with the flow. I asked where he would like me to be and he told me to find a place I felt comfortable and to sit and enjoy the service. Once service started Pastor Mark went to the front of the room and opened service with a welcome and announcements. After announcements Pastor Mark told everyone that he was going to change things up for this Sunday. So instead of worshiping first he gave his sermon. Pastor Mark preached on Paul and how even in all his pain and suffering, Paul still had joy. Once the sermon was finished, Pastor Mark showed us a short clip relating to the message and then we split off into prayer groups, based on gender. AfterShow MoreRelatedGroup Experience : Alcoholics Anonymous1441 Words   |  6 Pagesother stay on the path towards sobriety. They are not affiliated with any other organization, denomination, or institution and the only requirement for membership is the desire to stop drinking (Fisher Harrison, 2013). They meet at least once a week, if not more to support one another and to share their experiences, struggles, and successes. I attended an AA meeting held at the St. Stephens Catholic Church in El Paso, Texas. I was a little apprehensive as I have never attended a meeting like thisRead MoreAlcoholics Anonymous : A Anonymous1442 Words   |  6 Pagesother stay on the path towards sobriety. They are not affiliated with any other organization, denomination, or institution and the only requirement for membership is the desire to stop drinking (Fisher Harrison, 2013). They meet at least once a week, if not more to support one another and to share their experiences, struggles, and successes. I attended an AA meeting held at the St. Stephens Catholic Church in El Paso, Texas. I was a little apprehensive at first because I have never attended a meetingRead MoreReligious Sensitivities Between Religion And Art Beckons Controversy And The Wrath Of Family And Community2647 Words   |  11 PagesMuseum in Moscow. This is one of 4 renderings, two digital prints and 2 acrylic on canvas paintings. This digital print mixes the modern pop art logo of Coca-Cola with an image of Jesus. It is one of the modern poster children for a stand against consumerism. The controversy jams the gears because of the fact that it is ‘taboo’, meshing a religious icon with a logo that isn’t habitually associated with religion immediately turns into something perceived as disrespectful. Another example of controversialRead MoreEssay Windshield Survey3429 Words   |  14 Pagesverbatim or paraphrased, and that any assistance of any kind, which I received while producing this paper, has been acknowledged in the References section. I have obtained written permission from the copyright holder for any trademarked material, logos, or images from the Internet or other sources. I further agree that my name typed on the line below is intended to have, and shall have, the same validity as my handwritten signature. Students signature (name typed here is equivalent to a signature):Read MoreEssay on Against United States Currency Mentioning God2731 Words   |  11 Pages In God We Trust should be removed from United States currency. The mention of God, which is a religious belief, misrepresents those United States citizens who do not hold this belief. In Source D, Jon Murray, President of the non-profit organization American Atheists, argues that the motto In God We Trust inscribed on the mint violates the Free Speech, Free Exercise, and Establishment clauses of the First Amendment. It violates Free Speech by the inability to erase or eliminate the inscriptionRead More An Analytical Approach to Truth and Religion Essays6441 Words   |  26 Pagessuperiority of European culture — and of the tendency to view all other cultures from ones own perspective. One does not believe any more in easy discrimination between a false myth and a true logos, especially because the European culture which binds truth with religion has no counterparts in non-European religions which are interested in morality and religious practices rather than in the religio us doctrine. There are a number of reasons for diminishing interest in the problem of truth ofRead MoreCulture and Religion8004 Words   |  33 Pagesparticular cultural context. Christian Faith is received, lived, expressed and transmitted on the basis of a culture. The church teaches in the Evangelii Nuntiandi that â€Å"the construction of the kingdom cannot help but take over elements from human culture and cultures.† The Puebla asserts that â€Å"culture s are not vacuums devoid of authentic values, and the evangelizing works of the church is not a process of destruction, but of consolidating and fortifying those values, a contribution to the growth of theRead MoreBrazil Sports - An Important Part of Brazilian Culture2813 Words   |  12 PagesBrazil is located on the eastern part of South America has the fifth largest population of about 200 million people (Stambulova Ryba, 2013, p. 64). It’s the only Portuguese speaking country in Latin America and the Roman Catholic Church is the national religion followed. The country’s Life expectancy is about 69 ; with the culture being influenced by Italy, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Japan and Arab immigrants; allowing the country to have a diverse cultural history. Brazil has a very successfulRead MoreDescribe with Examples How Schools May Demonstrate and Uphold Their Aims:14953 Words   |  60 Pagesare linked to either the Church of England or the Roman Catholic Church, but there are some schools linked to other faith or non-denominational groups. | Voluntary Controlled Schools | Voluntary-controlled schools are a cross between community and voluntary-aided schools. The local authority employs the staff and sets the entrance criteria, like a community school, but the school land and buildings are normally owned by a charity foundation, often a Christian Denomination. This also appoints someRead MoreItaly - Research Paper10557 Words   |  43 PagesItaly) The largest group of non-Italian speakers includes those who speak Sardinian, a Romance language, which retains many pre-Latin words. Some of the other languages spoken are German, French, and Slovene. (The Languages Spoken in Italy) Religion 90 percent of Italy’s population is Roman Catholic. The remainder of the population is comprised mostly of Jews, along with some Muslims and Orthodox and Eastern Rite Catholics. Supernatural beliefs are based in the Catholic Church and mixed with older beliefs

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Investment Approach for Certona Case Study Example

Essays on Investment Approach for Certona Case Study The paper "Investment Approach for Certona" is a perfect example of a case study on finance and accounting. Recently a proposed software development has been brought to my attention. Certona, a personalization, and recommendation SaaS could potentially carry with it a significant financial benefit for the organization. In considering the investment approach for this product the most overarching concerns are those related to the financial figures. The software license costs $2000 per month and requires a 1-year commitment. The total margin is 35% and the organization’s AOV is $92. Certona guarantees 68 additional sales per month.  After conducting the financial breakdown the figures support that a net profit would be gained from the purchase of the product. These figures were obtained through first calculating the profit margin, as a percentage of the AOV. In this regard, 35% of $92 resulted in a figure of $32.2. The Certona product guarantees 68 sales per month. This would r esult in an extra monthly net profit of $2176. The product itself costs $2000 per month with a yearlong commitment. It follows that while the product requires a steep investment, the profit gained is ultimately worth the cost.Still, there are a number of possible drawbacks. One consideration is the extent that the 68 sales per month are guaranteed. If this is just an estimate the high cost of the product may be too high to risk. Another consideration is the extent that the business model will stay the same over the upcoming year. If organizationally the intentions are to transition into a different business model or mode of sale where the potential mechanisms that the technology would work would become obsolete, then it’s clear that it would be superfluous and overly risky to purchase the technology. Ultimately, the investment decision is one of semantics. If Certona truly guarantees 68 sales per month then it is worth purchasing this technology package, as long as the organi zation intends on retaining the same upcoming strategy. Conversely, if the 68 sales per month are only an estimate then it seems that purchasing this product would ultimately be too risky, as the mitigating factors of potential slowing sales could potentially bankrupt the organization.

Monday, December 9, 2019

The Death Penalty free essay sample

The death penalty is a very controversial topic that some may oppose while others assent. I have read two interesting essays about the death penalty. One is entitled â€Å"The Penalty of Death† by H. L Mencken and the other â€Å"Execution† by Anna Quindlen. Both authors presented their arguments and used great points to support their opinions. H. L Mencken is for the death penalty while Anna Quindlen is against it. After reading these two authors work I was able to form my own opinion on this punishment. I condone the death penalty despite how cruel it may be. H. L Mencken begins his story by presenting two arguments against capital punishment. He then gives his reasons as to why he believes these arguments are weak. The first argument is that the act of hanging a man is an unpleasant business and horrendous to the people who have to watch. The second argument is that the death penalty is counterproductive because it will not restrain others from committing the same crime. We will write a custom essay sample on The Death Penalty or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Mencken’s response is that there are a lot of displeasing jobs that still need to be done that no one considers extinguishing. He lists occupations such as a plumber, soldier, and garbage man. The author then states that the fault in argument two is assuming that the main goal of punishing criminals is to discourage other potential wrong doers. Mencken reveals that preventing others from committing similar crimes is not the only reason for the death penalty. Another reason is a term called katharsis. Katharsis is simply a pleasant discharge of emotions. The families of victims all want to feel as though justice is served. What better way than to hurt the criminal the way they hurt their victim. â€Å"The thing they crave primarily is the satisfaction of seeing the criminal actually before them suffer as he made them suffer (Mencken 475)†. The Death Penalty free essay sample A discussion for and against the death penalty. (more)

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Totalitarianism Essays - Forms Of Government, Political Philosophy

Totalitarianism According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the definition of totalitarianism is a form of government that theoretically permits no individual freedom and that seeks to subordinate all aspects of the individual's life to the authority of the government ( Totalitarian governments are often believed to be a solution to political or economic problems in a country. Despite the brutality and lack of freedom, at its beginning, a totalitarian government often receives overwhelming support for its ideas and goals. History has proven that such governments have had a tremendous negative impact on their people and traditions. Totalitarian governments often emerge from developing countries that are trying to build their economy. They are also considered to be a solution for countries that have recently been through a social, economic or political downfall. At the beginning of their rule, these regimes tend to be very popular and have the support of most people in the country. This popularity is mostly due to the government's promises of an ideal society. A totalitarian administration also requires a charismatic leader and modern developments in transportation and communication to spread its message. In order for a totalitarian state to be built, the leader must have a tremendous will to transform the society into his version of utopia ( A central concept in the totalitarian system is the attainment of a specific goal. This goal is the reason why a totalitarian government exists and is essential to keeping the regime in power ( In Hitler's case, his goals were the purification of the Aryan race and the expansion of his territory. In a totalitarian state, all of its

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Primarks Market Entry Proposal

Primarks Market Entry Proposal Introduction The decision to invest in a new and foreign market is not easy to make. A number of factors have to be taken into consideration. In spite of this, the decision to expand to foreign markets is not new to Primark. The company has taken these steps a number of times in the past.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Primark’s Market Entry specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, the company operates more than 250 stores in different parts of the world. The existence of these outlets is an indication that Primark has made deliberate steps to enter into new global markets in the past. A market analysis was conducted to determine the attractiveness of two potential countries that the company wanted to establish its operations in. The two were Brazil and Italy. The analysis revealed a lot about the company and the two countries. Evidently, the two markets have their own potentials for growth, especially in the apparel industry, which Primark specialises in. The issue of expansion into new markets in other countries is very critical to the operations of Primark. The growth is essential especially taking into consideration the nature of the industry this company operates in. There are numerous reasons why the company should go on with the expansion. In this executive summary, the justifications for selecting Brazil as the new frontier in Primark’s international venture are provided. The decision to expand to Brazil is supported by facts and figures, including a number of theories touching on international operations. Proposed Market Entry Strategies and Justification The proposed market strategy for Primark includes the utilisation of licensing in the first stage of entry. The second stage of expansion should be carried out with the help of complete ownership strategy. It is important to note that licensing is suitable for Primark since the global apparel industry is currently experiencing intense competition. Complete ownership would afford the company advantages associated with independence, once established in the new market through licensing.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Primark’s Entry Strategy: Recommendations A number of recommendations are made based on the findings from the market analysis conducted on the two target markets (Italy and Brazil). The recommendations are as follows: Brazil is the ideal market for expansion between the two. Expanding to Italy is not a good idea at this stage. Two market entry strategies are proposed. They include licensing and total ownership. Licensing should be conducted at the first stage of market entry. Complete ownership should then follow. It should come after the brand is already established in the new market. Background The current case study focused on the assessment of the at tractiveness of both Italy and Brazil. The aim was to determine the best market for Primark’s expansion objective. The analysis and evaluation of the target markets revealed that Brazil is more promising compared to Italy. According to Sako (2006: 500), the motive to expand internationally is informed by the mission and vision statements of the company. In addition to the objective of increasing its profits, it is apparent that Primark aims at offering the customers high quality products. In addition, the company has a reputation of dealing with up-to-date and fashionable apparel. The products are sold at what can be regarded as affordable prices, which translate to value for customer’s money. The values will inform the entry of this company into the new market. The international ambitions of Primark are made evident by the more than 250 stores it operates in Europe Primark’s decision to expand internationally can be analysed from the perspective of normative de cision’s theory. According to this theoretical framework, the decision to enter into a foreign market should take into consideration the trade-offs between returns and risks (Caves 2007: 21). Consequently, Primark should go for the entry mode with the highest possibilities for risk-adjustment in relation to returns on investment. The availability of resources, together with the need for control, should also play a key role in the determination of the preferred entry mode. Dunning (1988:5) highlights the issue of resource availability with regards to international trade. According to Dunning, the concept entails the managerial and financial capabilities of the firm to survive in the given foreign market. Control, on the other hand, implies the need exhibited by the firm to influence systems, decision, and methods of conducting business in that particular market.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Primark’s Market Entry specifically for you for o nly $16.05 $11/page Learn More The factors enumerated above determine the linkages between the firm-level and the nation-level analyses of international markets. An evaluation of the two markets at the nation level settled on Brazil as the ideal market for Primark to further its expansion objectives. It is a fact that competition in the Brazilian apparel industry is very high. However, market conditions indicate the availability of opportunities for the establishment of a new company (Artigas and Calicchio 2007: 72). Furthermore, the analysis indicates that the adoption of the appropriate set of entry strategies can help Primark penetrate this market. The selection of Brazil as the preferred market for Primark is based on various nation-level factors. According to PricewaterhouseCoopers International Limited [PWC] (2013:5), Brazil has recently emerged as a strong and attractive economic player in the world. The degree of economic diversification in the country is hig h. In addition, the South American nation has a large domestic consumer market. The financial systems are well regulated, making the country an attractive option for Primark. According to Dunning (1988: 2), the general framework for determining market-specific and firm-specific factors influencing international expansion is fourfold. The factors of control, resources, risk and returns are essential to the analysis. The following proposal takes into consideration all these aspects of Primark at the firm level. In addition, the strategies proposed for the market entry appreciate nation-specific factors that will influence Primark’s activities. Analysis of Market Opportunities in Brazil Before going international, a firm should conduct an environmental analysis of the target market. The analysis of Brazil as the preferred market was conducted from different perspectives. The impacts of country-specific factors on the operations of the company were reviewed.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are various classical theories touching on international trade. The theoretical frameworks propose varying elements of comparative advantage, which make some countries more ideal for investment than others (Dunning 1988: 12). They also advance factor endowments that make a country a preferred international destination. The factors include land, labour, natural resources, and population size (Krugman 1999: 14). Nation-level analysis of Brazil is based on Dunning’s framework for expansion into foreign markets and Porter’s diamond model. According to Porter (1998:41), nations have the capacity to create new and advanced factor endowments. Factors countries can create include skilled labour, culture, government support, knowledge base, as well as advanced technologies (Porter 1998: 42). Consequently, the diamond model advanced by Porter illustrates the national advantages of Brazil in relation to Primark’s expansion objective. The individual factors in Porterà ¢â‚¬â„¢s model which constituted a nation’s comparative advantage included factor conditions and demand conditions (Porter 1998: 42).Other factors included related and supporting industries, coupled with firm strategy, structure and rivalry. Figure 1: Porter’s Diamond Model Source: Porter (1998: 41). Factor conditions refer to the situation in the country, with regard to production elements. Production factors include infrastructure, skilled labour, and technological base, among others. According to PWC (2013: 19), the economy of Brazil is large, and the infrastructure in most parts of the country is well developed. In addition, as an emerging economy, the country is developing very rapidly in relation to skilled labour and technological development (Porter 1998: 44). The apparel industry in Brazil is also fairy established with numerous brands, meaning that skilled labour in this industry is abundant. Demand conditions aspect of Porter’s diamond model entails the local demand for the products and services the investing company offers (Porter 1998: 44). According to MarketLine (2013:17), the apparel retail industry in Brazil is experiencing a strong growth. For instance, the value of the industry is forecasted to increase by 39.8% between 2012 and 2017 (MarketLine 2013:12). The growth is based on increasing demand in the apparel industry. Related and supporting industries in Porter’s diamond model referred to the non-existence or existence of other internationally competitive industries (Porter 1998: 45). According to PWC (2013: 153), Brazil importance in the global economy is attested for by the numerous international organisations based there. Some of the apparel companies in the country also indicate the level of competitiveness in the industry. The presence of these supporting industries in Brazil indicates that, innovativeness in the industry becomes a necessity. In addition, Primark would be able to enjoy more cost effective inputs. Firm strategy, structure, and rivalry in Porter’s diamond model referred to the conditions in the country that determine establishment and organisation of companies (Porter 1998: 45). In addition, this aspect of the model determines management of the company. Consequently, these conditions determine the kind of competition in the particular country. In Brazil, most of the major players in the apparel industry are local firms. According to MarketLine (2013:12) the retail apparel industry is fairly fragmented, although the recent growth of the industry has helped lessen rivalry. Despite of this rivalry however, Primark would have the relative advantage of offering unique imported products. The role of the government in determining success of enterprises in any country cannot be underestimated. The government ultimately facilitates business environment in the particular country, for instance through policies and regulations. According to PWC (2013: 72), Brazil is a membe r of numerous international trade agreements. Some of the agreements include the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTA), and the Amazon Cooperation Treaty [ACT] (PWC 2013: 73). Other agreements include World Trade Organisation (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change (PWC 2013: 73). Membership to such organisations indicates the country’s openness to international trade, a factor that favours Primark immensely. Labour laws in Brazil are, however, strict. In addition, there are tax regulations and requirements for all foreign companies to register with the Ministry of Development and Foreign Commerce (PWC 2013: 88). Despite of the political and legal risks involved in Brazil, the returns outweigh them, leaving a country a very ideal market for Primark investment. Usually, many countries will seek to protect local enterprises, due to the uncertainties associated with multinational firms. Attractiveness of the Country The nation-level ana lysis through Porter’s Diamond attests to the potential of Brazil’s apparel industry and the benefits associated with establishing operations here. Below are some of the reasons why the country is attractive for investment: Foreign investments are generally welcome in Brazil. Brazil is the leading country in Latin America in terms of investment opportunities. All major agencies in the world have granted the country Investment Grade rating. Local auditing and accounting standards are in line with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Recent changes in the business culture and the promotion of best practices in corporate governance are favourable to new investors (PWC 2013:31). However, Primark should be wary of some of the challenges associated with doing business in Brazil. The country is ranked as ‘fair’ with regards to the ease of establishing operations (KPMG 2012: 12). Figure 2: Ranking of Brazil in terms of ease of doing business Source: KPMG (2012: 12). The rising trend in foreign direct investments (FDI) in Brazil further indicates the attractiveness of the country. According to KPMG (2012:9), the country recorded a positive growth in FDI in the period between 2006 and 2011. The trend is expected to persist. Figure 3: FDI in Brazil Source: KPMG (2012: 9). Company’s Situation Analysis The firm-level analysis conducted on Primark was based the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) framework (Hill and Westbrook 1997: 47). Strengths constitute the internal factors giving Primark an edge over competitors. Weaknesses constitute internal factors resulting to a company being at a disadvantage relative to competitors. Opportunities constitute the external elements, which an organisation can exploit to its advantage. The business is also faced by a number of threats. They include factors that are external to the entity, and which may derail efforts to achieve business objective. Some of the key strengths of Primark that can favour it in the intended venture include the positive reputation and popular brand names. In addition, the strong supply chain, and the beneficial trade relations established in the other countries reflect positively for Primark. The major weakness of the company is however the low margins recorded in some of its branches. In exception of poor business environment conditions, the company might not be ready to expand further due to poor management. The key opportunities that Primark faces include the highly untapped Brazilian apparel industry, by international retailers. In addition, Brazil has a very large consumer base (Artigas Calicchio 2007: 76).The only apparent threat to Primark is the global economic depression, whose aftermaths might still be evident in the Brazilian apparel industry. Readiness to go Overseas The readiness of Primark to go overseas cannot be denied. The firm-level analysis reveals strengths of the company, which would be v ery beneficial in overseas ventures. In addition, the company has considerable experience of foreign markets entry from its operations in Europe. The national-level analysis also indicates immense opportunities for the company in the Brazilian apparel industry. Hence, all indicators point out that Primark is ready for overseas ventures. Market Entry Strategy Koch (2001:351) proposes a holistic model for market entry and market selection processes (MEMS). The design of the model takes into account all contexts of the business and the relevant practices. It highlights the external, internal, and mixed category factors that inform the selection of the market. The model is shown below: Figure 4: Factors influencing market selection Source: Koch (2001:352). The factors affecting the selection of mode of market entry are also depicted in Koch’s model as shown below: Figure 5: Factors influencing market entry mode selection Source: Koch (2001:353). Primark can use Koch’s mo del to select a strategy that is suitable in entering Brazil. Based on the findings made in the nation-level and firm-level analyses, licensing emerges as the preferred entry strategy. According to Brouthers (2002: 206), licensing entails a firm in one country granting another company in a foreign country to manufacture, process, or use the licensor’s trademark. The domestic firm apparently enters into licensing contract with the foreign firm, allowing it usage of certain intellectual properties for payment of loyalties or given sales percentage. Intellectual properties licensed can include designs, patents, and name of the firm. One of the major advantages of licensing is that the strategy has low risks associated with it during expansion internationally, and it is relatively easy and quick (Anderson and Coughlan 1987: 74). In addition, the licensor (in this case Primark) has the opportunity of capitalising on the licensee’s country specific knowledge. The licensee Pr imark enter into a licensing agreement with will have better knowledge and experience in relation to Brazilian apparel industry. Although licensing spreads the risks of entry into new markets to the licensee, the main risk of this strategy is risk to the reputation of the licensor. A licensee with poor reputation will ultimately ruin the reputation of the licensor. Other disadvantages of licensing include very little control to the licensor, and likelihood of the licensee becoming a major competitor. Wholly owned foreign operations involve the expanding company establishing a complete base of operations in the target market (Brouthers 2002: 207). The strategy is the most extensive, since it would require total involvement by the company. Fully owned operations have the greatest advantage of total control. However, the disadvantages of this entry strategy are also high. For instance, this method of entry exhibits the highest financial risks. In addition, the company might take relati vely longer duration to get established in the market, or even fail altogether. Implementation of Market Entry Strategy In the first stage entry level, Primark should use licensing as the market entry strategy. As the brand gains more recognition in the market, the company should then result to total ownership. Initially, Primark should select several leading apparel retailers in the Brazilian market. After negotiations with these retailers, the company should settle on the one with the most reasonable, attractive, and profitable deal. The licensing should then be entered in, for a specified duration of time. Primark will have to allow the licensee the permission to use the company’s trademarks, brand, among other intellectual rights. The licensing contract should be projected to a period during which Primark brand should be fairly established in the Brazilian apparel industry. After the contract termination, Primark should then establish wholly owned operations in the Brazil ian apparel industry. Conclusion The nation-level analysis of Brazil reveals the potential of the market for a foreign international apparel retailer. It is a fact that the country poses some challenges to a new entrant. However, the potential returns outweigh these risks. The firm-level analysis also reveals that Primark is fairly experienced in entering international markets. The numerous stores the company operates in Europe attest to this. However, the company should approach the Brazilian market cautiously since apparel consumers there have a different view of the industry. The products the company offers in the European markets differ with those demanded by consumers in Brazil. References Anderson, E., and Coughlan, A.T. (1987). ‘International market entry and expansion via independent or integrated channels of distribution’. Journal of Marketing, 51 (1), 71-82. Artigas, M., and Calicchio, N. (2007). ‘How half of the world shops: apparel in Brazil, China, an d India’. The McKinsey Quarterly, 1 (4), 68-79. Brouthers, K. D. (2002). ‘Institutional, cultural and transaction cost influences on entry mode choice and performance’. Journal of International Business Studies, 33 (2), 203-221. Brouthers, K.D., Brouthers, L.E., and Wilkinson, T.J. (1995). ‘Strategic alliances: choose your partners’. Long Range Planning, 28 (3),18-25. Caves, R. E. (2007). Multinational enterprise and economic analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press. Dunning, J. (1988). ‘The eclectic paradigm of international production: a restatement and some possible extensions’. Journal of international Business Studies, 19 (Spring), 1-31. Hill, T., and Westbrook, R. (1997). ‘SWOT analysis: it’s time for a product recall’. Long Range Planning, 30 (1), 46-52. Koch, A.J. (2001). ‘Factors influencing market and entry mode selection: developing the MEMS model’. Marketing Intelligence Planning, 19 (5 ), 351-361. KPMG (2012). Investing in Brazil: a land of opportunities. Web. Krugman, P. (1999). ‘The role of geography in development’. International Regional Science Review, 22 (2), 12-32. MarketLine. (2013). Marketline industry profile: apparel retail in Brazil. Web. Porter, M.E. (1998). The competitive advantage of nations, New York: Free Press. PricewaterhouseCoopers International Limited. (2013). Doing business and investing in Brazil. Web. Sako, M. (2006). ‘Outsourcing and off-shoring: implications for productivity of business services’. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 22 (4), 499-512.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Lord Neubergers advice on clearer legal writing - Emphasis

Lord Neubergers advice on clearer legal writing Lord Neubergers advice on clearer legal writing When it comes to calls for improving legal writing, few are made with more authority than this. Lord Neuberger of Abbotsbury, President of the Supreme Court, has said that judges themselves need to change the way they write – or risk losing the public’s confidence in the entire justice system. Lord Neuberger made the claim in a recent lecture to the British and Irish Legal Information Institute (BAILII). His main focus was on writing and reporting judgments (or should that be judgements?), but many of his comments are relevant to legal writing in general. ‘It is not realistic to expect that every Judgment could be understood by everyone:    human nature, the complexities of modern life, and the intricacies of the law do not permit that,’ he said. ‘However, if we are to maintain public confidence in the justice system, judges must make their Judgments as accessible as possible, particularly to members of the public and litigants-in-person.’ Even lawyers prefer simple writing To illustrate the importance of clear writing, he gave an example from a study by the American law professor Joe Kimble. As part of the study, The Straight Skinny on Better Judicial Opinions, Professor Kimble sent two versions of the same judgment to 700 lawyers. Version A was the original judgment, picked as an average sample, not an especially bad one (though Lord Neuberger described it as having ‘Proustian length sentences without Proust’s literary merit’). Version B had been rewritten in plainer language. Here’s the opening paragraph of version A: ‘Plaintiff Robert Wills filed a declaratory judgment against defendant State Farm Insurance Company to determine whether defendant has a duty to pay benefits under the uninsured motorist provisions found in plaintiff’s policy with defendant. Pursuant to the parties’ stipulated statement of facts, the trial court granted summary disposition in plaintiff’s favor upon finding coverage where gunshots fired from an unidentified automobile passing plaintiff’s vehicle caused plaintiff to drive off the road and suffer injuries. Defendant appeals as of right. We reverse and remand. And here’s the opening paragraph of version B: ‘Robert Wills was injured when someone drove by him and fired shots toward his car, causing him to swerve into a tree. He filed a declaratory-judgment action to determine whether State Farm had to pay him uninsured-motorist benefits. The issue is whether there was a ‘substantial physical nexus’ between the unidentified car and Wills’s car. The trial court answered yes and granted a summary disposition for Wills. We disagree and reverse. We do not find a substantial physical nexus between the two cars, because the bullets were not projected by the unidentified car itself.’ The lawyers expressed a ‘strong preference’ for version B. Asked why they preferred it, they said because it had a summary at the beginning, left out unnecessary detail, and was more concise. And if the lawyers found version A harder to read, despite their extensive legal training, the general public barely stand a chance. ‘First, the fact that legal professionals are trained to read Judgments is no excuse for poor Judgment-writing,’ said Lord Neuberger. ‘Secondly, reference to lawyers, judges and academics is myopic. They are only part of the audience. The public are the real audience.’ Two recommendations for clearer judgments Lord Neuberger made two proposals for how judges could improve the accessibility of judgments. 1. Start with a judgment summary Firstly, to include a short summary at the start. This would be particularly helpful to self-represented litigants without ready access to professionally published law reports from the Incorporated Council of Law Reporting (ICLR), he said. ‘It would not be as long as a law report headnote, or as one of the press summaries prepared by the Supreme Court. But it should be sufficient to enable a non-lawyer to know the facts, the issues, and how and why they were resolved.’ 2. Use a clear structure Secondly, he called for a clearer framework for all judgments, including a table of contents at the beginning ‘to give better guidance to the structure and contents of longer Judgments’, and appropriate headings and signposts throughout the document. ‘Kimble’s study confirms that this is not just a good discipline but it is what the legal professional readers want, and, if it is what lawyers want, it is a fortiori what non-lawyers will want. A clear structure aids accessibility.’ (A fortiori means ‘all the more so’. Peppering your arguments with Latin isn’t the best example of aiding accessibility – perhaps Lord Neuberger should take a little of his own advice here.) Keep it concise Lord Neuberger also made what he described as a more controversial suggestion: ‘that judges could take a more rigorous approach to cutting the length of their Judgments’. That didn’t mean they should go as far as Judge James Murdoch of the UX Tax Court, he said, quoting: ‘It is reputed that a taxpayer testified, â€Å"As God is my judge, I do not owe this tax†. Judge Murdoch replied, â€Å"He is not, I am; you do†.’ However, there were opportunities to reduce the length of judgments by cutting unnecessary content. ‘Judges should weed out the otiose. We should, for instance, remove unnecessary displays of learning, or what the Lord Chief Justice, Lord Judge, recalls his history teacher marking on his essay, APK, anxious parade of knowledge.’ Say what needs to be said, give the readers the information they need, and no more. You can read the speech, which also covers judgment reporting and dissemination, in full here. To see a case study of how we helped   commercial law firm Nabarro LLP, click here.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Report on the airline and aircraft and manufacturing industries Essay

Report on the airline and aircraft and manufacturing industries - Essay Example The barriers to entry are high and so very few prospective players are looking forward to enter. The industry is impacted by macro-environmental factors which help to shape demand for its commercial aircrafts. The factors that drive demand in this industry include economic growth as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) and growth in regional and international trade. These factors have historically impacted on growth in regional and international travel. With the abatement of the global recession in most regions, it is expected that the demand for commercial aircrafts will increase resulting in between 26,000 and 31,000 new commercial aircrafts of varying types being demanded. The demand for new aircraft will also be stimulated by the need to replace retiring aircrafts with new and more energy efficient aircrafts that burn less fuel and have more capacity to enable increases in revenue per passenger kilometre (RPK). Boeing and Airbus are the major players in the aircraft manufactu ring industry and both of them have produced market forecast for the 20 year period 2010 to 2029. They both have differences in their estimates of the number of aircrafts that will be required to fill demand for passenger seats during the period. They also have differing expectations on whether the point-to-point or hub and spoke is the best strategy to follow as both seek to ensure that whichever philosophy airlines choose, they are not disadvantaged. A SWOT analysis reveals that the companies have significant strengths and will be able to take hold of the opportunities and minimise weaknesses and threats in both the micro and macro-environments. A TOWS analysis model was used to determine what strengths could be used to take hold of opportunities and minimise threats and weaknesses and turn them into opportunities where possible. Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Part A 2.0 Definition of the industry and its structure 2.1 An analysis of the micro-environment 2.1.1 Threat of sub stitute products 2.1.2 Barriers to entry 2.1.3 Power of suppliers 2.1.4 Power of customers/buyers 2.1.5 Competitive rivalry 2.2 An analysis of the macro-environment 2.2.1 Political factors 2.2.2 Economic factors 2.2.3 Social factors 2.2.4 Technological factors 2.2.5 Legal factors 2.2.6 Ecological factors 3 Part B 3.0 Developing a strategy 3.1 Market Forecasts 3.1.1 Boeing’s Market Forecasts 3.1.2 Airbus’s Market Forecasts 3.1.3 Comparison of Forecasts 3.2 Situational Analysis of Boeing and Airbus 3.3 Situational Analysis using the SWOT model 3.3.1 Strengths 3.3.2 Weaknesses 3.3.3 Opportunities 3.3.4 Threats 3.4 Situational Analysis using the TOWS model 4.0 Conclusion 1.0 Introduction This report is divided into two parts. Part 1 identifies and analyses the structure of the commercial aircraft manufacturing industry with emphasis on its two major players Airbus of Europe and Boeing of the United States. It then analyses the competition in the industry and the demand con ditions facing industry players. An analysis of the macro-environment using the PESLE model and highlighting the main factors that will impact the industry has also been presented. Part 2 summarises market forecasts prepared by Airbus and Boeing and highlights the differences. In order to determine the ability of both companies to deal

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Critical Thinking Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 3

Critical Thinking - Article Example Since they are humans, they have the constitutional right to express themselves sexually (Higgins, 2008). Unfortunately, their disabled state puts them in great dangers as they often fall victim of sexual abuse and exploitation. Efforts by caregivers to protect them from such abuses could easily be misinterpreted as denying the disabled the right to sexual lives. This is in fact the conflicting part of their caregivers’ responsibility to the disabled. However, Bernert (2011) submit that care giving may be conducted in search a manner that guarantees maximum protection of the person with disability. For instance, such a person should be educated on matters pertaining to sex depending on their state. They should further be provided with equipment such as wheelchairs and allowed access to contraceptives. In addition, they can be helped foster good relationships that not only take note of their state, but that which is informed with the needs of such a person. It is only through this that the right of the persona with the disability can be guaranteed without the caregiver feeling like they are in a

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Training Roles & Respo Essay Example for Free

Training Roles Respo Essay Assignment 1: Roles, Responsibilities and Relationships of effective trainers| The purpose of this assignment is to help you to provide evidence to satisfy the following outcomes and assessment criteria. LO 1. Understand own role and responsibilities in lifelong learningP 1.1 Summarise key aspects of legislation, regulatory requirements and codes of practice relating to own role and responsibilitiesP 1.2 Explain own responsibilities for equality and valuing diversityP 1.3 Explain own role and responsibilities in lifelong learningP 1.4 Explain own role and responsibilities in identifying and meeting the needs of learnersLO 2. Understand the relationships between teachers and other professionals in lifelong learningP 2.1 Explain the boundaries between the teaching role and other professional rolesP 2.2 Describe points of referral to meet the needs of learnersP 2.3 Summarise own responsibilities in relation to other professionals 3. Understand own responsibility for maintaining a safe and supportive learning environmentP 3.1 Explain own responsibilities in maintaining a safe and supportive learning environmentP 3.2 Explain ways to promote appropriate behaviour and respect for others| ScenarioYou have been asked by your supervisor to prepare an important part of the handbook for new teachers in your department. Your tasks are to outline the roles, responsibilities and relationships of teachers teaching your subject.| Task 1: Prepare a list of legislation, regulatory requirements and codes of practice relevant to your role and responsibilities with the key aspects of each summarised. (P1.1)Task 2: Explain what equality and diversity mean, along with examples of your responsibilities towards meeting them. (P1.2)Task 3: Explain the roles and responsibilities of a teacher in the Lifelong Learning Sector and provide your job description and curriculum vitae.(P1.3)Task 4: Create a list of needs which your students might have. An explanation of how you will identify and meet these needs, based on your roles and responsibilities as a teacher.(P1.4)| Task 5: Compile a list of boundaries that a teacher might encounter. An explanation of what these boundaries are and how they relate to the teaching role and other professionals.(P2.1)Task 6: Make a list of potential needs of students. A description of relevant points of referral and support systems available such as people, agencies, organisations, websites etc. (P2.2)Task 7: List the teaching responsibilities and summarise these responsibilities in relation to other professionals.(P2.3)| Task 8: Explain your own responsibilities towards maintaining a safe and supportive learning environment. Use your job description, relevant organisation policies and procedures to support your answer. Cross reference this to Roles, responsibilities and relationships in lifelong learning 1.1 and 1.4.(P3.1)Task 9: Explanation of ways to promote appropriate behaviour and respect for others.(P3.2)| Sources of information: Use the notes provide, your own research, job description, rules and regulations of your institute and national and international legislations, rules and regulations.| This brief has been verified as being fit for purpose.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

The Gifted and Talented Essay -- Essays Papers

The Gifted and Talented The term â€Å"gifted† can mean many things. Up until recently it was the word used to describe people with profoundly high intelligence. Now, adding the words â€Å"creative† and â€Å"talented†, the category of giftedness has been extended to include not only exceptionally intelligent people, but also people with extraordinary ability in other areas, not just with IQ tests (Drew, Egan, & Hardman, 2002). The identification and definition of giftedness have been controversial for many, many decades. Originally, IQ test scores were the only way of determining giftedness. An IQ test would be given and some number score, such as 12-, would be the point of cut-off (Cook, Elliott, Kratochwill, & Travers, 2000). More recently, intellectual giftedness is usually identified and defined by the specific school systems’ ideas and perspectives. There is no generally accepted definition of giftedness, but the Javits Gifted and Talented Education Act defines it as: â€Å"Children and youth with outstanding talent perform or show the potential for performing at remarkably high levels of accomplishment when compared with others of their age, experience, or environment. These children and youth exhibit high performance capability in intellectual, creative, and/or artistic areas, possess an unusual leadership capacity, or excel in specific academic fields. They require services or activities not ordinarily provided by the schools. Outstanding talents are present in children and youth from all cultural groups, across all economic strata, and in all areas of human endeavor† (Drew et al., 2002). It is obvious there is practically no limit on who can be gifted. The problems lie in the wide range of definitions and the acce... ...fted education. Retrieved March 4, 2004, from legal.rights.gifted.ed.html Magnet/center and special programs. (n.d). Retrieved March 4, 2004, from http:// Parke, B. (n.d.). Challenging gifted students in the regular classroom. Retrieved March 1, 2004, from _kids.html Shaunessy, E. (2003). State policies regarding gifted education. Gifted Child Today Magazine, 26. Retrieved March 7, 2004, from Winebrenner, S. (2003). Teaching strategies for twice-exceptional students [Electronic version]. Intervention in School and Clinic, 38. Retrieved March 4, 2004, from

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Food Production and Poverty Essay

Most people live on just a few dollars a day. Whether you live in the wealthiest nations in the world or the poorest, you will see high levels of inequality. In a world of plenty, a huge number go hungry. Hunger is more than just the result of food production and meeting demands. The causes of hunger are related to the causes of poverty. One of the major causes of hunger is poverty itself. The Food and Agriculture Organization maintains that the world’s agriculture produces enough food to provide every person with at least 2,720 kilocalories every day for the world’s population (Eitzen, Zinn, Smith, 2011 pg.68). Problems of hunger, malnutrition and disease affect the poorest in society. Even though the world’s agriculture produces plenty of food, the food production is unevenly distributed, resulting in about 1 billion being malnourished which is 1 in six people, about one in every three of the world’s inhabitants being food insecure, and around 9 million people dying of malnutrition each year (Eitzen, Zinn, Smith, 2011 pg.68). The poorest are also typically disregarded from society and have little representation or opinion in public and political debates, making it even harder to escape poverty. Food supplies are adequate, but people must have the resources to afford them. Because the poor cannot afford the available food, they go hungry. This is where the relationship between poverty and food production link together. Political and economic conditions that keep prices too high, make jobs difficult to obtain and poorly paid, and force too many people to compete for too few resources. The major problem with food shortages is not food production, although that’s exceedingly important, but the political economy of the world and of the individual nations. There are many inter-related issues causing hunger, which are related to economics and other factors that cause poverty. They include land rights and ownership, diversion of land use to non-productive use, increasing emphasis on export-oriented agriculture, inefficient agricultural practices, war, famine, drought, over-fishing, poor crop yields, etc. (Eitzen, Zinn, Smith, 2011 pg.69). An example of non-productive use in farmland is using it to pasture cattle which is a tremendously wasteful use of land, water and energy but has a high demand for wealthy countries. A high percentage of agricultural land in the world is used to grow commodities such as cotton, sisal, tea, tobacco, sugar cane, and cocoa, items which are non-food products or contain very little nutrition (Shah, 2010). Grain is also another important food product which is used wasteful. For example more than half the grain grown in the United States (requiring half the water used in the U.S.) is fed to livestock, grain that would feed far more people than would the livestock to which it is fed (Shah, 2010). Grain is also is used to biofuels rather than food production. The result in that is that the prices of grain increase, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) estimates that 30% of the increase in the prices of the major grains is due to biofuels (Shah, 2010). The increasing use of biofuels also plays a huge part in food production because it diverts land away from food production and is used to grow crops for fuel such as ethanol. Biofuels have forced global food prices up by 75%, far more than previously estimated according to a World Bank report (Shah, 2010). The relationship between food production and poverty are basically because people don’t have enough money to buy food and also be able to put a roof over their head. The cost of food has increased dramatically over the past years and continues to rise due but not limited to the examples stated to previously in this paper. When we think about earning a living which for most families is already below means compared to the cost of living we tend not to factor in food. More than one billion live off of less than $2.50 a day which usually needs to support your family and yourself. Food production may be threatened, but it is international trade, economic policies and the control of land that have led to enormous poverty/hunger issues therefore leading to less access and high prices for food.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Arthur Miller wrote the play Essay

What Miller does do to excellent effect is keep the pace of the plot speeding along and twisting in different directions all the time, at one time the focal point is on Danforth and his control of the court, then at another it is Abigail and the girls feigning that Mary Warren’s spirit has possessed them. Throughout this extract he keeps the dramatic effect by having many different plot lines run into each other at this point; Proctor’s attempt to save Elizabeth, Mary Warren’s declaration that the girls are putting on a show and Abigail Williams’ and the girls dramatic role-play claiming Mary Warren is sending her spirit out on them. All of these plot lines are intertwined in the court room scene and are exposed in John Proctor’s announcement that he is guilty of lechery. Some of the central themes and concerns in The Crucible are evident in this extract intolerance, being a society run strictly by a theocracy means that Salem is run by strict laws and religion. Any wavering outside these rules or religious thoughts is unacceptable. Danforth is intolerant when listening to Proctor and Giles Corey’s attempted reasoning and proposals. Salem at this time was intolerant of any un-natural endeavours, just as America in the 1950’s was intolerant of any un-American activities or communists. Acts of search and arrest became known as McCarthyism, led by Senator John McCarthy. Hanging those who were accused was seen as restoring purity to the theocracy in Salem. Another recurring theme in The Crucible is that of personal reputation. In this extract Proctor seeks to keep his name from being tarnished by giving testament against Abigail claiming that she is delivering her accusations through jealousy of his wife Elizabeth, and by announcing that he has committed adultery through his affair with Abigail. Reverend Parris acts only on what he thinks is best for his reputation throughout the whole play, particularly in this extract when he lies about seeing the girls naked dancing in the woods, â€Å"I do not deny they danced, but I never saw any of them naked†. Parris lies in order to keep his reputation, for if it were released that he had found his daughter and many other girls dancing naked in the woods and ‘compacting with the devil’ then he would be driven from his office as the reverend of Salem. Judges Danforth and Hathorne are both unwilling to accept that Proctor is innocent and do not want to admit to being deceived by a bunch of girls claiming witchcraft and are therefore forced to charge John Proctor to keep their own reputations, making the interrogation partial towards the young girls and unfair on Proctor. The other central theme of the play is the role that hysteria can play in societies. The lies by Abigail all the way through the play and particularly in this extract easily manipulate the judges and the residents of Salem to turn against the accused which ultimately leads to their executions. Miller has linked this hysterical theme to the McCarthyism period in which he lived in the 1950’s, the hysteria led by Senator Joseph McCarthy and his hunt for communists and communist sympathisers in post WWII America and during the Cold War. Miller seems to have based his character Judge Danforth on the individual Senator Joseph McCarthy: both are over-seeing the hysteria of the communities and are leading the search for the accused and presiding over their trials.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Uncommon Author - An Interview with Eliot Peper

Uncommon Author - An Interview with Eliot Peper Uncommon Author - An Interview with Eliot Peper â€Å"For someone who loves a book, would make their day? What would make them happy or make them think of it again or think that it’s cool? And I’m always struggling with that.†Update! We interview Eliot again for the release of the sequel to Uncommon Stock - come check it out!Eliot Peper is the nicest man in the world. At least, that’s how we felt coming away from our interview. His first novel, ‘Uncommon Stock,’ a startup thriller, is both an indie success story and the debut book from Colorado’s FG Press. Eliot’s background is in venture capital and consulting for the tech industry, including spells running his own startups. We met to talk about what it was like transitioning from entrepreneur to authorpreneur, and what it was like working with the newly-minted FG Press.Edit: As of 2016, FG Press has closed its doors. Eliot Peper is now a full-time indie author.- -REEDSYYour first novel is about startups. You’ve had pl enty of experiences in the business world, but had you written much before?ELIOT PEPERI hadn’t written fiction since high school, but I had experience with storytelling. My background was in startups -  I was a founder, then an early employee at a couple of different startups, and then an entrepreneur-in-residence at a VC fund. As you guys I’m sure know yourselves, the fuzzy front-end of building a business, most of it’s storytelling. You’re trying to pitch investors, you’re trying to bring in talent, you’re trying to tell people about the problem you’re trying to address; you’re always telling stories whether it’s to customers, investors, partners, team members -  that’s a lot of what you do on a day-to-day basis. So I’d been doing a ton of that, but I’d not been doing anything like writing a novel.REEDSYI thought it was interesting how widely your book was picked up by the b usiness community. A lot of business writing is generally non-fiction, right?ELIOT PEPERNon-fiction is interesting for obvious reasons. Most non-fiction is â€Å"Here are the lessons I learned doing something,† or with biographies â€Å"What did this person learn through living their life?† For business, I find fiction particularly interesting because it gives you this secret window inside the character’s head.There’s a boatload of non-fiction out there about business -  â€Å"I built GM, or I was the CEO of X company, so here are the things you should think about when starting a company or in your daily life.† But it doesn’t show you that, as I’m sure you guys are experiencing right now, when you’re building a business it’s a human experience, right? Especially for founders who are struggling through their first company or their first couple of companies. It’s a crazy emotional roller coaster. The hum an side of startups doesn’t get a lot of exposure because everyone wants to talk about advice and best practices. Few people want to talk about how it destroyed their relationship with their wife; or how they were sleeping with their co-founder; or how for their series B round they were about to get a ten-x valuation bump on the first round until lead investor had a heart attack the night before and it fucked up their entire company. That stuff happens all the time. I’ve been shocked by the shit that goes down in Silicon Valley.People don’t talk about that stuff publicly in a non-fiction context -  they don’t want to make that their sort of public life. The beauty of fiction is that you can experience that alongside the character. You can give people a window into what it’s like to be the startup or to be in business. And I think for people interested in learning about entrepreneurship that’s really special because there’s a lot more to it that just lean product development.REEDSYYeah, like you don’t need to have abstracted a principle for a story to be useful to someoneELIOT PEPERI’m sure you guys are experiencing this if you have advisors or mentors that you’re going to for advice. You’ll talk to one guy and he’ll say â€Å"Well, in my last business we did this, and we learned that you have to do X.† Then you talk to someone else and they’ll give you the exact opposite advice based on a totally different anecdote.A lot of business non-fiction is like that -  it’s a lot of anecdotes, and it’s really easy to mythologise people. So you look at the big names like Steve Jobs or whatever, and once they’ve achieved success it always feels like you can retroactively go back and say why they achieved success in the past. That’s a really weird thing to do. From a scientific process perspective that’s really bad, b ut that essentially covers all narrative non-fiction. You have to have that â€Å"What did you learn at the end of the fable?† ending, and I think fiction gives you a lot more freedom in that sense. You’re exploring just how humans wrestle with and overcome obstacles. Those obstacles could be killing Gilgamesh, or it could be taking a company public.REEDSYIt’s like parables, basically, or Aristotle’s version of Ethics. He doesn’t try to say what bravery is, he just says â€Å"Bravery is Achilles.†ELIOT PEPERI think the human mind is wired to understand complex problems through stories. It’s boring to read a complex problem that isn’t part of narrative.REEDSYHow have you applied your startup background to the daily routine of writing? I feel like a lot of startup advice is of the ‘work smarter, not harder’ variety. Can you apply that to writing?ELIOT PEPERI think the process of writing is very grinding, in terms of the actual drafting of the manuscript. I don’t even know how you would go about doing that smarter. I don’t really outline, I just spend time brainstorming constantly. On a walk I’ll think about where the characters are, where things are heading, what the next scene should be, what the final scene should be. I feel like I’m in good shape if I know the next scene I’m gonna write, and some kind of North Star that the climax will be. If I have more than that planned out it usually gets stale or I don’t stick to it anyway. I have to spend time immersed in the world psychologically, then I sit down, start writing, and there’s very little I can do aside from forcing myself to make the time, sit in front of Word, and not go on twitter. A lot of it is knowing how to be diligent and how to have discipline.That corresponds to business. It’s way too prevalent with my friends in tech and the startup world who are like â€Å"Oh my God I wa s up until 4am finishing this last release!† To me that’s like saying â€Å"Oh my God, I’m terrible at managing my time!† You know, that’s basically what you’re saying. It was less that I tried to take the lesson ‘work hard at all costs,’ and instead take the lesson ‘only do what matters.’ That’s really difficult to do.As an author it’s so easy to spend all my time blogging and emailing and pitching journalists or influencers to try and get more coverage for the book, to do events, to do signings, to just be on Twitter and Facebook or whatever promotional tools you’re using. You can let that suck away all your time. But at the end of the day the people who read my books, my actual readers, they just want the next book -  they don’t give a shit what I post on Twitter. To an extent, me having a public face, at least they can feel like they’re getting to know me.But you rea lly have to look back and say â€Å"I need to be spending at least the majority of my time doing what actually matters.† In business it’s just as difficult. It’s very easy to spend your time just being external facing when the only reason people are going to be interested in you is to improve their lives by solving a problem. If you’re not solving that problem in what you’re doing every day, that’s a problem.I think that’s probably the one lesson I took from business. The ‘work smarter, not harder’ side’s more relevant in the PR side of things and how you connect with readers. We’re trying to experiment with that. I have a twitter account for the protagonist of ‘Uncommon Stock.’ We built a real website for the fictional startup in the book. We got Foundry Group, the VC firm, to announce an investment in them on April Fools day. That’s sort of fun. My dearest hope is that if I do something that delights my readers, that when they’re at happy hour tonight and they’re quaffing a beer, they’ll say to their friend â€Å"OK, they actually did this.† If that happens that’s one more word-of-mouth referral. Anything I can do to inspire or delight my readers, that’s what I’m going for.REEDSYIt seems like delighting a reader is much healthier than growth hacking.ELIOT PEPERYeah. If you look at the public discourse about how to get readers, the majority of it is the growth hacking kind of stuff. It’s all about how can you engineer your own success and manipulate people into liking you, and I don’t know -  I don’t really like to be manipulated as a reader, so I don’t really want to do that as a writer.REEDSYDo you have any role-models in the self-publishing space?ELIOT PEPERI like Hugh Howey. He’s the wà ¼nderkind, right? But he’s also really personal and personable. He shares what he does, and it feels real. Or, you know Neal Stephenson? He’s a prototypical Big 5 author; he’s been a best-selling author for decades, he has a huge audience, in that sense he’s very mainstream. But he writes on Slashdot and other random forums all the time. The people writing for the New York Times Book Review would never have heard of these places. He’s interesting because if you go to his website, it’s pretty minimal. It’s sort of lame. But he’s also on Slashdot and all these random place, writing super in-depth, honest answers to forum questions from trolls. I find that compelling because it’s like â€Å"That’s pretty cool, you’re just being real, that’s who you are, you’re a sort of goofy nerdy guy, you read Slashdot so you started writing there too.† It’s been very popular. His forum posts turn into memes that people share around writing blogs -  I think thatâ €™s fun.You don’t even have to stick to publishing. Macklemore self-published his first albums, was never signed by a major label, and was able to build a fan-base because his songs are awesome and he made funny videos for them. Now he’s turned that into having some of the top-listed songs over the past couple of years. That’s pretty cool, that’s pretty fun. With the writers I admire most the biggest thing is they write really good stuff, but the other part is in the rest of their lives they come across as really genuine.REEDSYWhat sort of relationship are you building between yourself and your readers?ELIOT PEPERI try to think of writing as literally storytelling. I don’t just hand over the manuscript and that’s that. I try to think of it like I’m literally sitting at a campfire talking to people. If you’re sitting at a campfire with your friends, you don’t want to be awkward, right? It’s better to tell a sto ry they want to hear. And afterwards you’re still their friend. It’s not like the relationship is over -  you’re going to roast marshmallows over the fire and have a conversation about it. That’s how I look at being a writer. I can connect with my readers in a new way or share something with them they might not otherwise know. Like on my blog I write about business because some of my readers are interested in startups and that’s part of why they read my stuff, but I also share personal stuff because if they like my book they might want to know more about me.Do you know Joss Whedon? I find him really interesting. I’m not very sophisticated about films, but what he’s famous for is that while many of the shows he’s made haven’t been that popular in terms of ratings, the people who did watch it were obsessed with it. He’s had the highest aftermarket sales of anyone. The prototypical guy for this is George Lucas. He turned a weird 70s sci-fi movie into the underlying mythology of America, and represents some enormous amount of toy sales and other crazy external licensing sales.The guys who are now doing all these superhero movies are obsessed with Joss Whedon because they’re trying to do the same with these comic book franchises. So they’re trying to take X-Men and turn it into these multiple blockbuster movies but also have video-games and all these other ways fans can experience the story. Joss says he has one question in mind that I think applies to every authors, and that’s â€Å"What can you do that would really delight your fans?† For people who really like your story, how can you double down and give them extra stuff that they would just want more and more of if they really love that story? There’s a really wonderful essay on this, that’s also relevant for early-stage entrepreneurs, called ‘1000 True Fans’.I’m still figuring that out. If people read Uncommon Stock, what more would they want? I know they’d want the sequel because they’re all asking for it, so that’s good -  I’m working on that. But beyond that what are other things that, for someone who loves a book, would make their day? What would make them happy or make them think of it again or think that it’s cool? And I’m always struggling with that.If I was constantly thinking about how I could sell more books, I wouldn’t enjoy the experience of being a writer much. If I want to look at the world cynically, my experience becomes cynical.REEDSYIt’s a bad filter on the creative process.ELIOTYou’re going to have a filter no matter what. If your filter is ‘how can I create something that people will love,’ that’s a fun filter to have. If your filter is ‘how can I create something that people will buy, not only is that less fun from the creativ e perspective, but it’s also very difficult to ascertain. It’s not obvious what people will buy. If you’re trying to select for that, it doesn’t mean you’re going to have any higher chance of success than someone who’s just trying to create something that people will love, and they’re going to have a much better time doing it.REEDSYYou worked with FG Press on ‘Uncommon Stock’ -  what was that like? Did it free you from the commercial pressures traditionally published authors work with, like having to earn out an advance?ELIOTFirst of all, FG Press gives no advances. You have a 50/50 split on all royalties. A typical big-5 contract gives the author about 15% -  that’s fancy math, but that’s more or less what it breaks down to. FG Press is giving a much larger cut on royalties and they’re giving no advance, and I wanted it that way. I think the advance system sets up the wrong in centive. Then the author is writing a book and selling it to a publisher, rather than selling it to a reader. The people who are important to me are my readers. My publisher is important to the extent that they help me either produce something better or do something that makes my readers more happy. I would self-publish in a heartbeat if FG Press was not providing those things for me.The commercial pressures are tied to advances, but the reason that authors are subject to those pressures is because they want the advance. That’s where things can get messy, and that’s part of what FG Press set out to try to do differently. Does that create different challenges? Of course. If you’re not giving advances, the writer has to support themselves until book sales start coming in -  if they do. That’s not a universally good decision -  you need to choose which risk factors you want to take on to produce the kind of content you want to make. T hat’s what they’re doing, that’s their model, and that’s why it’s different. They’re betting that authors who publish through them willingly want to build a readership and want to earn money based on how popular the damn book is, regardless of whether a high-level editor thinks you have potential.REEDSYWhat is FG Press offering their authors in exchange for the initial 50%?ELIOT PEPERFirst of all they’re writing the checks for the initial production costs. It’s true, they take that financial risk, so that’s great for authors who can’t write the checks to take the risks for editing and production. That’s useful and it shows that they’re committed to the title. It just doesn’t cost that much to produce a book. The part where they really add value is through helping to establish a community of readers. As a -  very personal -  example I was sharing my book with Brad becaus e I thought he would like it, and he’s a well-known guy among people who might also like it. If he likes it and writes a review of it, it could be really useful for helping me connect with new readers.When I wrote the book and we released it, that was super useful. Not only did he post about it but he talked to TechStars. TechStars bought ‘Uncommon Stock’ on a license for all of TechStars -  present and future founders. So every TechStars person now gets sent a digital copy of Uncommon Stock. I’d have never been able to achieve that on my own because I don’t have those relationships and I don’t know those people. But working with FG Press it was really cool to be able to do things like that. Or as another example, Foundry Group issued a fake investment. Would they have done that if I was a random self-published author? Probably not, right? So there have been many opportunities working with them for serendipity in terms of working with them that have definitely benefitted me hugely and that I really appreciate that I think also benefit readers. That was a cute stunt, and I wouldn’t have been able to do that for readers.Honestly, the way that I see it at the end of the day and the way that I think FG press is trying to build themselves and the philosophy they take to the table is that they want to just create a publishing model that makes common sense for authors and book production, and then they want to treat everyone like a friend. I’m doing a panel at a tech event. I called FG Press and said â€Å"Guys, I have this opportunity with this big panel -  wouldn’t it be fun if we could like get excerpts of the book to everyone going?† So we’re creating this co-branded landing page where everyone can go pick them up if they want to. Then FG Press said â€Å"If you’re looking for people for the panel, here are a couple of CEOs in the Foundry portfolio that cou ld be a good fit.† So that’s awesome, it makes the panel even better. And so I get to meet a bunch of CEOs who give me good material for my sequel. It’s an all-around everybody-wins.REEDSYHow important was it working with an editor?ELIOT PEPERFirst of all, I need an editor, and I think anyone who thinks they don’t is crazy. If you want to produce something that’s really fun to read, it needs to be edited by someone who knows what they’re doing.I had a couple of different stages. I shared the drafts with Brad but he wasn’t providing on-going feedback and I didn’t want him to. When I’m working on my first rough draft feedback slows me down, it doesn’t speed me up. I need to basically vomit onto the page, and then take that sack of shit in Word format and try to make it better. My first filtration process to try to make it slightly better was sending it to a couple of beta readers who I’d been really selective with. These were people who I had to trust would both be super honest -  not just say it was nice or whatever. I had to know that they’d give me lot of constructive negative feedback.They also each had a specific perspective they could add. One of them for example was probably the top Angel investor in San Diego, and he also studied Literature at Stanford. And so he has this dual perspective of knowing a lot about the English language and loving books, but also being very involved in tech and early-stage startups. I had a friend from grad school, who ended up being my developmental editor, who used to be an editorial exec in Hollywood. She had the whole movie perspective on how those structured plot elements. Movies are incredibly structured stories, and I don’t know that stuff. Having her perspective to help inform where the story could be improved was really useful. They sent back feedback in different forms. Some sent an email with high-level thoughts, s ome people sent me page references. I thought it through, took it on balance, incorporated it.Then I wanted to do a more in-depth, structural look at it because, as I said, I don’t really outline. That’s how I feel comfortable in the creative process but it means more work at the end because you end up having things that don’t work or don’t make sense or aren’t tight enough in terms of plot and character development. So I did three rounds of developmental editing with my friend from grad school. We made a lot of notes, had a couple of phone conversations, and then I would go through and address the problems I thought were important. We did three of those, and each got more gritty. The first one, she didn’t even make notes. She read it, wrote down thoughts, talked through some of the high-level issues. The next one was more scene-oriented, and the final one was more paragraph-by-paragraph.Once we were done with that, I did one more round of b eta readers, different people, got different feedback, incorporate it†¦ and that’s when Brad was giving a lot of detailed feedback. Finally, once we were satisfied with the content we moved onto language. So I did a round of copyediting, then two rounds of proofreading before formatting it for Kindle and print and all that.REEDSYThanks for your time Eliot.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

The Fifth Estate

The Fifth Estate The Fifth Estate The Fifth Estate By Maeve Maddox A movie about Julian Assange, the man who founded a website devoted to leaking information that governments wish to keep secret, is called The Fifth Estate. Most modern speakers associate the word estate with various types of property, for example, a grand house with extensive grounds the assets left by a deceased person a housing development The word estate in the expression fifth estate originates from a much earlier use of the word: An order or class regarded as part of the body politic, and as such participating in the government either directly or through its representatives. The earliest reference to this meaning of estate in the OED is dated 1380 when John Wyclif asserted that people belong to three categories ordained by God: priests, knights, and the â€Å"commons.† The concept evolved differently in different European countries, but the essential idea was to view society in terms of who had a voice in government. In England, the three estates came to be defined as Lords Spiritual (high-ranking clergy like bishops), Lords Temporal (nobility), and Commons. In France, the three estates were Clergy, Nobles, and Townsmen. A few European countries, like Sweden, recognized four estates, but it’s the three-estate concept that explains the development of the English expression fifth estate, A fact to keep in mind about the medieval third estate is that it did not include everyone who did not belong to the first two estates. The third estate was made up of wealthy landowners and merchants. The portion of the population that lacked rank or wealth lacked a political voice as well. The term fourth estate was coined in the 18th century as a figurative expression to label the sector of the population that exists outside the circle of established political power. Nowadays, the fourth estate has become a synonym for the Press, but in 1752, Fielding identified the fourth estate with â€Å"the Mob.† Various individuals and groups were referred to as â€Å"the fourth estate† before the term finally settled on the Press. Newspapers won the term because they were perceived as the voice of the politically or socially disenfranchised. If newspapers have sold out and become a part of the Establishment, then strictly speaking, the coinage â€Å"fifth estate† is unncessary. The mantle should simply be taken from the traditional Press and passed on to the Internet. However, maybe the term does represent something new. Perhaps the role of the fifth estate is not to provide everyone with a voice in government, but to provide a means of undermining government. So far, the meaning of fifth estate remains blurry. The earliest reference to its use in the OED refers to the medium of radio and is dated 1932. In a 1955 reference, the fifth estate is equated with trade unions. Only ten uses of fifth estate occur in the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) for the years 1990-2012. Six of those citations refer to the title of a television program. The Assange movie will doubtless have the effect of turning fifth estate into a buzz word. How the term’s figurative meaning will evolve remains to be seen. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:10 Rules for Writing Numbers and NumeralsList of Greek Words in the English LanguageKn- Words in English

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Peace and Conflict Studies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Peace and Conflict Studies - Essay Example ric. To misquote from one of George Orwell’s lesser-known sayings, where the British press is concerned, the facts and the rhetoric do not logically connect. Particularly where Britain is concerned, it will be necessary to disregard the rhetoric (as both sides of what is politely called the debate are equally guilty of distortion) and take the facts and form a picture from them, accepting that what passes for the accepted wisdom is not so much a tissue of lies as a tissue of invention. On the other hand, it has proved most interesting to try and find out the real reasons for the (2003) Iraq disaster and make the most of this opportunity to set the record straight. Hypothesis The fundamental hypothesis that the author wishes to put forward for the 2003 Anglo-American intervention in Iraq is that the ‘intervention’ (disaster would be a better word) took place for internal political reasons. In other words, nothing the Iraqis themselves, UN, EU, Russians, Chinese etc ., etc. would or could have done would have prevented the war, as both the British and U.S, metropolitan elites were completely impervious to any outside persuasion. We will start with Todd’s (who, despite his Anglophone name and ancestry, is French) analysis. He cites the main American internal political factors [2004, Pp 207-211 inclusive) as â€Å"economic mystification, ideological crisis and denial of reality†. He also introduces â€Å"evil, as a central concept†. If the author understands Todd correctly, the Americans (or at least their metropolitan elite) intervened in Iraq in order to perpetuate the actual (as opposed to stated) ideological and psychological aims of using American military power (which, it must be said, looks impressive, even if it isn’t in reality) to ensure that international investment (chiefly the purchase of U.S. Treasury bonds) is then channelled into U.S. domestic consumption. The mechanism appears to be that the funds gene rated by the bond purchases are used to fund the American imperial military, the money then being channelled through equipment purchases, salaries and base maintenance into the American economy at large - much of the money then being channelled back to the U.S. government through federal taxes. The ultimate expression of this is that wars (what Todd calls â€Å"theoretical micro-militarism†) against small countries such as Iraq are much more effective than peaceable military commitments in achieving this, as otherwise the purchasers of U.S. Treasury bonds might start asking awkward questions about where all the money is going. So much for economic mystification. We will now examine Todd’s concept of ideological crisis. Since the end of the â€Å"Cold War† (the author prefers the term ‘Grand Area Planning‘

Thursday, October 31, 2019

BMW's New Oxford Way Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

BMW's New Oxford Way - Case Study Example The management allowed the workers in each shift to give a 'team talk' for 45 minutes in a fortnightly manner. Previously the workers were reluctant to join such activities during work, but now they want to air their ideas which worked for the betterment of the company. The team members were also allowed to air their ideas and suggest any change required. This resulted in savings to the tune of 6.3 million pounds. The management and directors also worked closely with the workers on the ground floor. This had led to the better understanding of the working personnel and the employer. The gulf between management and employee was reduced. As a result of the motivated management decisions, the workers were enthusiastic, positive, better informed and more open, which benefited the company a lot. c Benefit of team working at BMW for: I. Employees: 1. The employees were developed as a team and they were empowered to tackle the production related problems themselves. Whereas earlier they had to take help from other departments. 2. The tasks were rotated within members of groups so that they do not get bored by the daily repetitive work. 3. The rules and regulations were not forwarded by the management; it was purely based on the employee's own initiative and self management. 4. The team work also led to the development of the team-work culture which is beneficial for individual and team. 5. The team members could air their ideas and suggest any change in the process. 6. The team members were better informed due to job rotation and multiskilling. 7. They were more enthusiastic. 8. They possessed more positive attitude. 9. They were more open. II. Business: 1. Production problems... The workers were rejuvenated with the own initiative and self management which had broken the traditional hierarchical system of management. The daily duties of each team member were reduced so that he can think about his team members and can suggest any change for the team's work culture. The workers were given external training and coaching so that they can work as a team member. These endeavours from the company thus satisfied the purpose of job enrichment. Heike Schneeweis, HR director at BMW told, "The implementation of Wings concept turnaround the working practice and behaviour". She emphasized that "teamwork diminished the power of traditional hierarchical management model and inculcated responsibility among working teams". The management allowed the workers in each shift to give a 'team talk' for 45 minutes in a fortnightly manner. Previously the workers were reluctant to join such activities during work, but now they want to air their ideas which worked for the betterment of the company. The management and directors also worked closely with the workers on the ground floor. This had led to the better understanding of the working personnel and the employer. The gulf between management and employee was reduced. The success of the Wings system or in that sense, the New Oxford Way solely depends on the empowerment of the workers.

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

The market segmentation strategy for the manufacturer of the washing Essay

The market segmentation strategy for the manufacturer of the washing machine - Essay Example This research will begin with the definition of target marketing as â€Å"breaking a market into segments and then concentrating your marketing efforts on one or a few key segments†. Thus target marketing involves splitting the market into manageable segments. The choice as to which market segment is to be focused on depends on the manufacturer’s requirements. Many writers have suggested a variety of approaches to understanding the target market process. When making an effort to identify the characteristics of the target market demographics such as age, age group, gender, marital status, the location of the business, incomes of consumers and their preferences matters. Next psychographics such as cultural values, mores, lifestyles, tendencies, propensities, choices and personal concerns matters. In the same way the kind of industry and typical market structure matter. In this instance, the industry is the white goods manufacturing industry and the market structure is oli gopolistic in nature. The latter means there are only a few sellers or rather brand names. Other specifics include what kinds of regulations are applied to the industry by authorities. For instance, consumer electronics and electrical goods industry is subject to EU regulations that seek to ensure minimum safety standards. The incorporation of these safety measures would require a lot of research work and costs. Thus the target market would be approached with a greater degree of conviction and certainty.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Differentation strategies and its use by organizations

Differentation strategies and its use by organizations An organization that adopts a differentiation strategy seeks to distinguish itself from competitors through the quality of its products or services. Organizations that successfully implement a differentiation strategy are able to charge more than competitors because customers are willing to pay more to obtain the extra value they perceive. For example in case of Rolex they pursue a differentiation strategy, Rolex watches are handmade precious metals like gold or platinum and stainless steel and are subject to strenuous tests of quality and reliability. The firms reputation enables it to charge thousands of dollars for its watches. (à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦..) Firms use differentiation strategy to achieve a competitive advantage by providing unique products and these products attributes high quality and innovations. Differentiation is not just limited to the product but it also covers the delivery system and many other factors. Firms provide additional services to its customers with these differentiation characteristics which brings more profit with a premium price. Porter (1985), further suggests that these two generic strategies are fundamentally contradictory to each other and its important for the business to choose one of them. Cost leader can only gain the high performance if the business offer a satisfactory level of value to its customers which fulfilling the demand of their customers. Similarly differentiation strategy will only be successfully if the premium price of the product charged to customers characterized with some valuable features and customers are satisfied with that (Porter, 1985). There are many factors which results in differentiation. some of them are, To have a competitive edge on its rivals. To facilitates the entry restrictions for newcomers by building a new product To minimize the threats from its substitutes. To create a differentiation advantage  [1]   Different areas of differentiation While Porter bases his work on manufacturer, Walters Knee (1989) suggest a similar conceptual model for retailers with productivity led (e.g. effective cost management and economies of scales) and marketing led differentiation (e.g. product range, range characteristics or customer services). This model is similar to Porters generic strategies. Only one empirical study focus on differentiation analyses within the retailing. Morschett, Swoboda Schramm-Klein (2006) surveyed managers of food retailers and customers in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. Hypermarkets, supermarket, convenience stores, discounters and other were analyzed based on a pool of items derived by marketing mix elements. It provides evidence of three differentiation strategies: Price, quality (goods and services) and convenience. Reilly (2002) suggests that differentiation is one the key business strategy of Porter. Bauer and Colgan (2001) said that when a company use differentiation strategy, it focus on providing a product or service with unique features. Product differentiation satisfies the specific needs of customer and it allows the company to charge a premium price which helps the organization to capture the market share. The differentiation strategy only gets implemented effectively if the business provides product of superior quality and after sale support. Organizations charge higher prices to its customers when they follow the differentiation strategy based on the product features, their customer service and the delivery system business use. The quality it offers to its customer can be real or distinguished based on the fashion or brand name. The differentiation strategy fulfills the specific or complicated customers interest in a unique and higher quality product and for which he is ready to pay a higher price. When organization use the differentiation strategy then it must be ready to add a premium to the cost but it is not to recommend that costs and prices are not be considered but is not the main focus of the organization. However as the customers likes the product because of its uniqueness and higher quality so they become loyal to the business and do not mind in paying the higher price for the products (Hlavacka et al., 2001) Sources of Differentiation Its not only the low prices of products that can create the differentiation of company from other but offering a unique product to its customer can create a differentiation to its competitors. That unique product should be more valuable to its customers. Differentiation also happened that how a company perform its function and what impacts does it have on its buyers. For example differentiation enables the company to meets the demands of its customers anywhere. It should have uniqueness and must have superior quality of its product as compared to its competitors. Factors/ Drivers for Differentiation Location- This is a very important for an organization to have a uniqueness in respect to its competitors. If the organization have its branch at a location which is easily accessible to its customers as compared to the others companys stores then the store will defiantly will have a competitive edge on the others organizations. Integration- An organization will be considered to have uniqueness its level of integration is high, its mean its level of coordination of value activities is high then it will create differentiation. Timing- An organization can effectively adopt a differentiation strategy if its timing of enchasing the opportunities is well on time. It will create uniqueness in the organization. Interrelationships- Customers can be offered better services by using effectively the different activities in the company. Scale- If the goods are produced at a small scale then the uniqueness of the products will be lost over a long period of time. Larger the scale of goods and services then there will more uniqueness. Differentiation of the organization depends on the volume of uniqueness. Learning- In order to perform well in the market a continuous learning process should be adopted. Institutional factors- If the management will have good relation with its staff that mean company will be having a good impact on its sale. This will also create uniqueness. Waitrose Quality Differentiation Strategy Waitrose has a differentiation strategy of quality product and services to its customers. It has a strategy in providing quality goods which are unique in the market to customers which helps Waitrose to differentiate itself with its competitors. Waitrose also pays too much attention in providing the goods with its own brand name and its specifically target a elite class of the market who dont care paying little bit much for best quality product. Focus Strategy A firm pursuing focus strategy concentrates on a specific regional markets, product line, or group of buyers. This strategy may have either a differentiation focus, whereby the firms differentiate its products in the focus market, or an overall cost leadership focus, whereby the firm manufactures and sell its products at a low cost in a focus market  [2]   Focus strategy is different from other strategies of a business as it remains a segment based and has a comparatively narrow scope in any business. In the focus strategy a organization target a specific segment of the market (Porter, 1979 pp.137-140). So what kind of market to be targeted, McCracken (2002), suggests that a organization can select a specific group of customers, a specific range of product, specific areas or some specific services for the customers. For example some European firm specifically concentrates on the European markets for its products. Aims of adopting a Focus strategy according to Porter (1980), is to achieve a narrow competitive advantage in the market. Focus aims is to concentrate on a niche market with its product that has been ignored by other larger competitors in the market. A specific geography, buyers purchasing behavior, different ethnic peoples demand and product features all makes niches for a organization. David (2000), Focus strategy of a organization can only be successful if the target segment have the potential to make good growth and it does not carry any importance to other competitors. Market penetration and market development can make an important focus strategy. Larger or medium organization use focus strategies but only with the combination of differentiation and cost leadership strategies in some segment of the market. The successfulness of the focus strategies depend only if the people have some specific demands and when there is not competition for other rivals.(David, 2000) Organization which adopts focus strategy in the business concentrates more on niche market and by understanding the dynamics of that particular market and work on the particular needs of the market and then try to produce unique product which fulfill the needs of that particular market. As that organization serves well to their customers in uniqueness, so they create a brand name in the mind of the people and create loyalty brand amongst the customers as well. This makes that particular market segment less attractive to its competitors. As with broad market strategies, it will be essential to decide whether organization pursue Cost leadership strategy or Differentiation strategy once a company have selected a focus strategy as a main approach. Firms that manage to adopt a focus strategy are able to tailor a large number of product developments strengths to relatively narrow market segment that they know very well. Focus strategy has two variants, which are; Cost focus is a variant where the organization looks for a cost advantage in a target segment. This is niche low cost strategy where the organization gets cost advantage in the focusers target segment. According to Porters Cost focus exploits differences in behavior in some segments Differentiation focus is where an organization looks for differentiation in the target segment. In this strategy the organization offers to its customers something different to its customers from rivals. Following are the situations where a focus strategy is efficient; Market segment has to be large enough to be profitable; more customers will bring more profit for the organization. Market segment has good growth potentials. High costs are difficult for the rivals to fulfill the demands of the niche. Focuser has to be able to choose from different segment of the market  [3]   Tesco Express Stores Tesco express stores are neighbor hood convenience shops, stocking mainly food with an emphasis on higher margin products alongside everyday essentials. These are found in busy city centers and small shopping mall in residential areas and on petrol station forecourts. There are more than 700 stores all over UK. Tesco Express is gaining a competitive edge in the small scale grocery market as it is providing additional gasoline facility as well. Cost Leadership Strategy A strategy in which an organization attempt to gain a competitive advantage by reducing its cost below the costs of competing firm. By keeping costs low, the organization is able to sell its products at low prices and still make a profit. Timex uses an overall cost leadership strategy. For decades, this firm has specialized in manufacturing relatively simple low cost watches for the mass market. The prices of the Timex watches starting around 39.95 dollars are low because company has an efficient high volume manufacturing capacity.  [4]   The firms operating in this highly competitive are always desires to be more and more successful. To stay in this competitive environment the company should have an competitive edge on its rivals. In order to have a competitive edge on its rivals the company should be selling its goods to its customers at lowest price with best quality as compared to its competitors. Porter (1980), suggest that in order to achieve the competitive advantage there are fundamentally two different approaches and those two approaches are cost leadership and differentiation strategies. In cost leadership strategy the business look for gaining the above average sale over its competitors with reducing the prices of all the elements of activities. To achieve the cost advantage of this nature, the organizations will employ the considerable efforts to reduce the cost of operating and production and will try hard to use all the available resources to their maximum level, including increasing the utilization of R D and advertising.(Porter, 1980) According to Malburg (2000), there is another strategy of Porters generic strategies which is cost leadership strategy. This strategy is about achieving a competitive advantage in the market by reducing the prices of products. In order to have a competitive advantage, business must focus on the low cost leadership strategy, low cost production and labor which committed to the low cost strategy. The business must be ready to stop all the production activities in which they dont have any cost advantage and must outsourcing all the operations to other businesses which have the cost advantage in the market. He further suggest that there are many areas in which cost leadership can be attained such as production on large scale, mass distribution, innovation of technology, improved product design, access to the raw materials and full utilization of available resources. Porter (1985), purports that only one business in a market can be the cost leader. Porter (1985), stressed there is incompatibility in between cost leadership and differentiation strategy, for instance he believe that differentiation is costly as compared to differentiation. He also used the sentence struck in the middle to put more stress that by combining the cost leadership and differentiation strategy will not results into a prolong competitive advantage. But Hill (1988) and Miller (1992), argued that that it is not only possible to combine both strategies but the combination of these two strategies will produce a competitive advantage for the business. Businesses which adopt differentiation strategy target a specific segment of the market and this strategy also has a broad scope. In the both lower cost strategy and differentiation strategy the businesses concentrates on larger segment of the market. An organization which adopt the lowest cost strategy or differentiation strategy that has a aim to focus on one target segment of the market or few defined segments of the market carry out focus strategy. There are two parts of the focus strategy one is lowest costs focus and the other one is differentiation focus7. (Bas P. Singer, 2007) Product Portfolio Strategy, BCG Matrix The notion of portfolio exists in many areas of life, not just for products. A broad portfolio means that business has a presence in a wide range of products and market sectors. A narrow portfolio implies that the organization operates in only a few or even in one product or market sector. A broad portfolio offers the advantage of robustness in that a downturn in one market will not threaten the whole company. The Boston consulting group matrix offers a way of examining and making a sense of a companys portfolio of product and market interests. It is a way of examining a whole product range to see a companys product as a collection of items in similar way that a holder of shares in several companies might the consider the decision on what to do with the shares. One of looking at the products in a portfolio is to considers each product in its position in the product life cycle and aims to have a balance of products in each stage. A more sophisticated approach is based on the idea that the market share in mature markets is highly correlated with profitability and that is relatively less expensive and less risky to attempt to win a share in the growth stage of the market when there will be many new customers making their first purchase. This is the approach taken by BCG matrix. It is use to analyze the product range with a view to aiding decision on how the products should be treated in an internal strategic analysis. BCG Growth Share Matrix BCG, it is a management tool which helps for four distinct purposes. Product portfolio can be classified into four business types by using BCG matrix based on Stars, Cash Cows, Question Marks and Dogs. In order to determine that what priorities can be given to a companys product portfolio. It can also be use to classify an organization product portfolio according to that how much cash is generation and how much is usage and it helps the management to adopt different available strategies to handle different product lines. Companies like Apple, Semen, Nokia, Sony, Samsung are engaged in diversify the product lines7. According to Boston consulting there are five different types of businesses which require the cash flow in different ratios. First types of businesses require more cash than they generate the cash and these types of businesses are very common. The second type require less cash to invest in but these businesses generate more cash than actually invested in and these are very few in the market. The third types of businesses is self sufficient in cash flow and with the passage of time it generate large amount of cash and the fourth type generate less cash but also requires less cash to invest in. The fifth one is stays in unstable condition. Figure 1: Stars: Stars are the leaders in the high growth market. These products generates large amount of cash but also requires a large amount of money to invest in as well. As time passes on the Stars becomes Cash Cows if these maintain there financial position but if they become unable to maintain their positions in the market, they becomes Dogs. Cash Cow: Cash cows are the products that require low investment but these products generate high amount of cash. These are the market leaders in the low growth market. the cash cows funds themselves for their own growth. They supply the investment funds for other products. These help to justify the debt capacity for the whole company. Dogs: Dogs often have a unsecure future are they are the drainer on the company as they generate very low amount of cash as they have a low market share in a high growth market. Question Marks: Question marks have not achieved a dominant position in the market hence they produce low amount of cash. They require a lot of cash because of the growth market conditions. Tesco has a very good portfolio in the market. Tesco is considered as Cash Cows in the market as it has a fine record of distributing the fine and quality goods and services to its customers. At the same time it is also considered as Stars because they are investing and making a lot of efforts to its customers in creating awareness about the e-commerce and retailing. Many of Tesco stores stocks more than 40000 product lines and express sores stock more than 2000 product line which helps the customers to choose from different product lines and according to their financial positions. Waitrose on the other hands have a different Portfolio as it has a different strategy as compare to Tesco. Waitrose use quality differentiation strategy and concentrate on specific portion of the market and offers them high quality products at a high prices because of this it is not attracting a large number of customers as compared to the Tesco. So this thing makes most of the products of the Waitrose Dogs of the market. Market Growth Strategy, Ansoff Matrix: Ansoff matrix is a strategic tool use to measure or define the strategic future direction of the business. The model categorizes the options into four generic alternatives to simplify the process. Market penetration: existing market/existing product Product development: existing market/existing product Market development: new market/existing market The Ansoff Matrix is used with the strategic objective to determine the future direction of the business. A company might be faced with declining sales of its products in the domestic market and will use the Ansoff Matrix to evaluate the four generic alternatives for the future. e.g company would evaluate strategies to penetrate the existing market through pricing or increased brand loyalty. Another option is to develop the product or change the design, increase the length of the product life cycle and increase the sales. A third option is to export the existing product into other countries or finally stop and completely diversify with new products into new markets.(Diana, 2009) Figure 2: Ansoff Matrix model Market Penetration Ansoff matrix explains that a business attempts to penetrate in a market by using its existing products. Tesco has a history which indicates that it always penetrate in a market with its existing products. It always get benefited from its customers to penetrate into a market. In order to achieve its goals Tesco always uses its strategy in three ways. Tesco attract customers from its competitors then it provides its customers good quality product and then Tesco retains customers as customers feels that it is best provider of goods and services. And thirdly it attract more non user of its products and services by advertising and other promotional strategies. Market Penetration is very important for the Tesco as retaining customers are more important for the Tesco than attracting the new ones. Tesco international expansion strategy has responded to meet the maximum needs of its customers. It is hard to enter into a new country market so Tesco had a strategy to join the local businesses by joint ventures. So this helps Tesco to know that market that what are the demands of the people, their purchasing behavior to foreign goods. Product Development Product development is another strategic approach in which new product has been introduced in the market. Tesco always work on the product development by introducing new products in the market in order to satisfy the needs of the customers. Tesco always maximize its profitability by introducing this strategy into the market. Tesco has produce many products and as a market retailer it distribute into the market. Brand loyalty is very important for the Tesco to develop new product. As Tesco has a good reputation of its brand so it does not have to do more advertising in order to attract more customer to buy any new product. Brand loyalty must be conserved in pricing, quality and uniqueness. Market Development: Market Development happened when a company moves into different countries with its existing products. This strategy is used to find new international markets. Tesco has developed many stores in countries like China, Poland, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Slovakia, South Korea, Turkey and United States. For penetrating into international market, Tesco has adopted a joint venture strategy which helps the company to control its cost and help to know the market. Diversification Tesco is not only sticking to the food items but it also maximizing its profit by selling non food items. Tesco has introduced its own mortgage services, banking and credit card services. It has started to sell the mobiles phones and many other electronic products. The other diversification seen in Tesco is fuel. Tesco has also entered into bio fuel and diesel and bio-diesel and investing more in green energy resources which will help to improve its image as compared to other fuel supplying companies like Shell. B.P8.